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Pathological changes according to the severity of asthma

Authors


Dr Y. Y. Kim, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 28 Yongon-Dong, Chongno-Gu, Seoul 110–744, Korea.

Summary

Background There have been many studies concerning pathological changes in bronchial mucosa from asthmatics; however, few studies has been carried out to evaluate pathological changes according to the severity of asthma.

Objective This study was designed to evaluate the cellular components in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and histologicai abnormalities in asthmatics according to the severity ot asthma.

Methods Bronchoalveolar lavages, bronchoscopic biopsies and ultrastructural examinations were performed in 13 asthmatics and 11 (BAL) or four (biopsies) non-asthmatic controls. The proportions of epithelial cells and eosinophils in BALF were significantly increased in asthmatics and showed significant correlations with PC20Meth which reflects bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Light microscopic examination revealed loss of epithelium, inllammatory cell infiltrations and thickening of the basement membrane which also showed significant correlation with PC20Meth. Hypertrophy of airway smooth muscles and hyperplasia of mucous glands were prominent in asthmatics but there was no difference according to the severity of asthma. Ultra-structural examination revealed that basement membrane thickening on light microscopic examination is due to the increased subepithelial collagen deposition with normal thickeness of basal lamina.

Conclusion These data suggest that loss of epithelial cells, infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils, and increased deposition of subepithelial collagen play major roles in determining the severity of asthma and non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

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