Background Basophils and mast cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders by releasing several proinflammatory mediators. Some histamine H1 receptor antagonists exert anti-inflammatory activities by modulating mediator release from basophils and mast cells.
Objective To study the in vitro effects of mizolastine, an H1 receptor antagonist, on the release of eicosanoids, histamine and IL-4 from human basophils and lung mast cells.
Methods and results Mizolastine (10−7–10−5 m) concentration-dependently inhibited the release of cysteinyl leukotriene C4 from anti-IgE-stimulated basophils (IC50: 3.85±0.28 μm) and mast cells (IC50: 3.92±0.41 μm). The same concentrations of mizolastine did not affect anti-IgE-induced prostaglandin D2 release from lung mast cells. In contrast, mizolastine enhanced up to 80% IgE-mediated histamine release (EC50: 4.63±0.14 μm) from basophils, but not from mast cells and it significantly potentiated IL-4 release from basophils induced by anti-IgE. Mizolastine did not affect histamine release from basophils induced by formyl peptide, whereas it inhibited cysteinyl leukotriene C4 release (IC50: 1.86±0.24 μm). Blockade of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and arachidonic acid mobilization by pyrrolidine-1 did not alter the effect of mizolastine on histamine release from basophils, thereby excluding accumulation of arachidonic acid metabolic intermediates as the cause of this effect. Mizolastine did not influence anti-IgE-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK-1 and -2) in human basophils.
Conclusions Mizolastine efficiently inhibits LTC4 synthesis in human basophils and mast cells presumably by interfering with 5-lipoxygenase. In contrast, it enhances histamine and IL-4 release only from anti-IgE-stimulated basophils. Therefore, mizolastine differentially regulates the production of mediators from basophils and mast cells in a cell- and stimulus-specific fashion.