Background Through proteomic and genomic approaches we have previously identified and characterized an alkaline serine protease that is a major allergen (88% frequency of IgE binding) of Penicillium chrysogenum (Pen ch 13).
Objective The aim of the present study is to identify the linear IgE-binding epitopes of Pen ch 13.
Methods IgE-binding regions were identified by dot-blot immunoassay using 11 phage-displayed peptide fragments spanning the whole molecule of Pen ch 13. The minimal epitope requirements for IgE binding were further defined with overlapping peptides synthesized on derivatized cellulose membranes using SPOTs technology. The critical residues on the immunodominant epitopes were mapped through site-directed mutagenesis. The locations of the IgE epitopes identified were correlated with a three-dimensional structure of Pen ch 13.
Results IgE antibodies in 35 serum samples reacted with at least one of the 11 peptide fragments of Pen ch 13. Peptide f-2n (residues 31–61) showed a high-intensity and the highest frequency (77%) of IgE binding. The frequencies of IgE binding to peptide f-4 (residues 93–133), f-1 (residues 1–37) and f-7 (residues 168–206) were 51%, 34% and 31%, respectively. SPOTs assay narrowed down the region of IgE binding of f-2n to residues 48–55 (GHADFGGR). Three, two and one epitope(s) that are four to nine amino acids in length, within f-4, f-1 and f-7, respectively, were found. Site-directed mutagenesis of Pen ch 13 revealed that substitution of His49 and/or Phe52 on Pen ch 13 with methionine resulted in proteins with drastic loss of IgE binding in seven sera tested. Proteins with amino acid replacements at residues 15–18 (RISS), or at residues 112 (I) and 116 (D) have lower IgE-binding reactivity in one of the two patient's sera tested. Substituting residues 117 (W), 119 (V) and 120 (K) also block most of the IgE binding in one of the two patient's sera tested. In addition, replacing residues 203 (V) and 204 (D) along with a deletion at residue 206 (Y) diminished the IgE binding in two serum samples tested. A model was constructed based on the structure of P. cyclopium subtilisin protease that has >90% (256 out of 283 amino acids) sequence identity with Pen ch 13. The major epitope (GHADFGGR) on Pen ch 13 formed a loop-like structure and was located at the surface of the allergen.
Conclusions Several linear IgE-reactive epitopes and their critical core amino acid residues were identified for the Pen ch 13 allergen. The major linear IgE-binding epitope, 48GHADFGGR55, formed a loop-like structure at the surface of the allergen. Substitution of His49 and/or Phe52 with methionine significantly reduced IgE-binding to Pen ch 13. Mapping of these results on a 3D model of the allergen provides valuable information about the molecular basis of allergenicity for Pen ch 13 and for designing specific immunotherapeutics.