Background The effects of leukotriene modifiers on IL-10 production have not been studied in children with asthma.
Objective The primary objective of this study was to determine the changes in IL-10 concentrations, clinical efficacy and peripheral blood eosinophil counts after treatment with montelukast.
Methods The study was conducted on 27 patients: 13 patients monoallergic to grass pollen during the pollen season (GPs group) and out of the pollen season (GPos group), and on 14 patients monoallergic to house dust mite (HDM) from May to September (HDM group). Main outcome measures were changes in concentrations of IL-10 in the supernatant after a 4-week treatment with montelukast. Measurements of asthma severity score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and peripheral blood eosinophil counts were the secondary end-points.
Results Montelukast resulted in a within-group significant increase in IL-10 concentration in the supernatant in the GPs (54.0 vs. 125.5 pg/mL) and in the HDM (51.2 vs. 77.1 pg/mL) group. Montelukast had no effect on changes of IL-10 concentration in the supernatant from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture after non-sensitizing allergen stimulation. Montelukast significantly improved asthma control and FEV1, and significantly decreased eosinophil blood count in the GPs and in the HDM group after a 4-week treatment. Montelukast did not lead to changes of all measured parameters within the GPos group.
Conclusion Montelukast increased IL-10 concentration in supernatants from sensitizing allergen-stimulated PBMC culture obtained from children with asthma monoallergic to grass pollen during the pollen season, and from children with asthma monoallergic to HDM.