Background Recombinant allergens are considered the basis for new diagnostic approaches and development of novel strategies of allergen-specific immunotherapy. As Pen a 1 from brown shrimp Penaeus aztecus is the only major allergen of shrimp and binds up to 75% of all shrimp-specific IgE antibodies this molecule may be an excellent model for the usage of allergens with reduced IgE antibody-binding capacity for specific immunotherapy.
Aim The aim was to clone, express and characterize a full-length recombinant Pen a 1 molecule and compare it with natural Pen a 1 in regard to structural and immunological parameters such as IgE antibody capacity and ability to induce IgE-mediated mediator release.
Methods Total RNA was isolated from P. aztecus and a rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5′ RACE) was performed to obtain full-length cDNA coding for Pen a 1. Using a gene-specific primer, PCR was performed and full-length cDNA was cloned and sequenced. Recombinant His-tagged Pen a 1 was isolated from Escherichia coli under native conditions by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Secondary structure of natural and recombinant Pen a 1 was compared by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and the IgE antibody-binding capacity evaluated by RAST. The allergenic potency was tested by the capability of natural and recombinant Pen a 1 to induce mediator release in a murine and human in vitro model of IgE-mediated type I allergy.
Results The deduced amino-acid sequence was 284 residues long and amino-acid sequence identities with allergenic and non-allergenic tropomyosins ranged from 80% to 99% and 51% to 58%, respectively. The analysis of the secondary structure of natural and recombinant Pen a 1 by CD spectroscopic analysis showed that both nPen a 1 and rPen a 1 had α-helical conformation that is typical for tropomyosin. The IgE antibody binding capacities of nPen a 1 and r Pen a1 were found to be essentially identical by RAST. The mediator release experiments using both wild-type and humanized rat basophilic leukaemia 30/25 cells showed that rPen a 1 and nPen a 1 induced a similar level of mast cell activation.
Conclusions Recombinant Pen a 1 and natural Pen a 1 are structurally and immunologically identical and rPen a 1 may be used as the basis for component-resolved diagnosis and the generation of modified shrimp tropomyosin for allergen-specific immunotherapy. The results of the animal studies indicate that C3H/HeJ mice that were sensitized with shrimp extract in combination with cholera toxin as adjuvant may be a suitable model to study shrimp allergy.