The collectin surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important component of the pulmonary innate host defence. Up to now, little is known about the regulation of eosinophil function by SP-D. Various murine models of pulmonary hypersensitivity suggest that SP-D may be a potent anti-allergic protein. We investigated the modulation of eosinophil chemotaxis and degranulation by human SP-D. SP-D markedly inhibited the chemotaxis of eosinophils triggered by eotaxin, a major tissue-derived CC-chemokine, as shown in a modified Boyden chamber assay. In addition, degranulation of ECP in response to Ca2+ ionophore, immobilized IgG and serum from allergic patients was inhibited by SP-D. In a fixed-cell enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and in flow cytometry, SP-D bound to eosinophils. This binding was saturable and was inhibited by the addition of maltose and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, suggesting the involvement of the carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-D. In addition, flow cytometry showed significant interaction of SP-D with CD32 (FcγII receptor) on eosinophils, which might explain the inhibitory effect of SP-D on the IgG and serum-triggered eosinophil cationic protein degranulation of eosinophils. Our data further support the concept of an anti-inflammatory function of SP-D in the lung of patients with allergic diseases.