Background Food allergy seems to be increasing in Asia as well as world-wide. Our aim was to characterize food protein sensitization patterns in a population of Asian children with possible food allergy.
Methods Children presenting to our allergy clinic over 3 years with symptomatic allergic disease and at least one specific food allergen sensitization documented on skin prick testing were included in the analysis.
Results Two hundred and twenty-seven patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. Ninety (40%) of the positive skin tests were positive to egg, 87 (39%) to shellfish, 62 (27.3%) to peanut, 30 (13.2%) to fish, 27 (11.8%) to cow's milk, 21 (9.3%) to sesame, 13 (3.7%) to wheat and eight (3.2%) to soy. Peanut sensitization was the third most common sensitizing allergen, and seen mostly in young atopic children with multiple food hypersensitivities and a family history of atopic dermatitis. The median reported age of first exposure to fish and shellfish was 6 and 12 months, respectively. The mean age at presentation of children with shellfish hypersensitivity was at 6.7 years of age. The likelihood of shellfish sensitization was increased in children with concomitant sensitization to cockroaches.
Conclusions In contrast to previously reported low peanut allergy rates in Asia, in our review, peanut sensitization is present in 27% (62/227) of food-allergic children, mostly in patients with multiple food protein sensitizations. Temporal patterns of first exposure of infants to fish and shellfish are unique to the Asian diet. Shellfish are a major sensitizing food source in Asian children, especially in allergic rhinitis patients sensitized to cockroaches.