Background Biodegradable microparticles, in particular poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), have been shown as potential delivery vehicles for intranasal (i.n.) vaccines in animal models.
Objectives To evaluate whether i.n. administration of PLGA microparticles containing a peptide with the major T cell epitope of Ole e 1, the main allergen of olive pollen, prevented mice from allergic sensitization to the whole protein.
Methods Peptide-PLGA microparticles were prepared by a solvent evaporation double emulsion method. Microparticles in a size range of 0.8 μm were evaluated for peptide loading and in vitro antigen release. Stability and immunogenicity of the entrapped peptide were retained, as determined by dot blot and ELISA inhibition. BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with peptide-PLGA microparticles for 3 consecutive days, 1 week before sensitization/challenge to Ole e 1. Blood, lungs and spleen were collected and analysed for immune response. Biodistribution of microparticles was investigated using confocal microscopy.
Results I.n. pretreatment of BALB/c mice with peptide-PLGA microparticles before sensitization to Ole e 1 led to a significant inhibition of serum allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 antibody levels, but a marked increase of specific IgG2a antibodies as compared with sham-pretreated mice. Moreover, IL-5 and IL-10 levels in spleen cell cultures were suppressed in peptide-PLGA pretreated mice. The airway histopathologic parameters associated with inflammation were significantly suppressed by the pretreatment.
Conclusion: These results demonstrate that i.n. immunization with peptide T-PLGA microparticles is effective in preventing subsequent allergic sensitization to Ole e 1. Our data indicate that peptide-PLGA microparticles may be promising candidates for the design of nasal vaccines against allergic diseases in humans.