• 1
    Sanders ME. Probiotics: considerations for human health. Nutr Rev 2003; 61:919.
  • 2
    Kalliomäki M, Salminen S, Arvilommi H, Kero P, Koskinen P, Isolauri E. Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001; 357:10769.
  • 3
    Kalliomäki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, Arvilommi H, Isolauri E. Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361:186971.
  • 4
    Isolauri E, Arvola T, Sutas Y, Moilanen E, Salminen S. Probiotics in the management of atopic eczema. Clin Exp Allergy 2000; 30:160410.
  • 5
    Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Nielsen SD et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003; 111:38995.
  • 6
    Viljanen M, Savilahti E, Haahtela T et al. Probiotics in the treatment of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome in infants: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Allergy 2005; 60:494500.
  • 7
    Weston S, Halbert A, Richmond P, Prescott SL. Effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child 2005; 90:8927.
  • 8
    Sudo N, Sawamura S, Tanaka K, Aiba Y, Kubo C, Koga Y. The requirement of intestinal bacterial flora for the development of an IgE production system fully susceptible to oral tolerance induction. J Immunol 1997; 159:173945.
  • 9
    Maeda Y, Noda S, Tanaka K et al. The failure of oral tolerance induction is functionally coupled to the absence of T cells in Peyer's patches under germfree conditions. Immunobiology 2001; 204:44257.
  • 10
    Miettinen M, Matikainen S, Vuopio-Varkila J et al. Lactobacilli and streptococci induce interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-18, and gamma interferon production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Infect Immun 1998; 66:605862.
  • 11
    Heumann D, Barras C, Severin A, Glauser MP, Tomasz A. Gram-positive cell walls stimulate synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 by human monocytes. Infect Immun 1994; 62:271521.
  • 12
    Pohjavuori E, Viljanen M, Korpela R et al. Lactobacillus GG effect in increasing IFN-gamma production in infants with cow's milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 114:1316.
  • 13
    Majamaa H, Isolauri E. Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997; 99:17985.
  • 14
    Viljanen M, Pohjavuori E, Haahtela T et al. Induction of inflammation as a possible mechanism of probiotic effect in atopic eczema-dermatitis syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005; 115:12549.
  • 15
    Kukkonen K, Savilahti E, Haahtela T et al. Probiotics and prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in the prevention of allergic diseases: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 119:1928.
  • 16
    Kukkonen K, Nieminen T, Poussa T, Savilahti E, Kuitunen M. Effect of probiotics on vaccine antibody responses in infancy – a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2006; 17:41621.
  • 17
    Williams HC, Burney PG, Pembroke AC, Hay RJ. The U.K. Working Party's Diagnostic Criteria for Atopic Dermatitis. III. Independent hospital validation. Br J Dermatol 1994; 131:40616.
  • 18
    Johansson SG, Bieber T, Dahl R et al. Revised nomenclature for allergy for global use: report of the nomenclature review committee of the world allergy organization, October 2003. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 113:8326.
  • 19
    Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis: the SCORAD Index. Consensus report of the European Task Force on atopic dermatitis. Dermatology 1993; 186:2331.
  • 20
    Dreborg S, Backman A, Basomba A, Bousquet J, Dieges P, Malling HJ. Skin tests used in type I allergy testing. Position paper. EAACI Sub-Committee on Skin Tests. Allergy 1989; 44:159.
  • 21
    Bruijnzeel-Koomen C, Ortolani C, Aas K et al. Adverse reactions to food. European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Subcommittee. Allergy 1995; 50:62335.
  • 22
    National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Expert Panel Report. Long-term management of asthma in children: effectiveness of inhaled corticosteroids compared to other medications. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 110:S14760.
  • 23
    International Rhinitis Management Working Group. International Consensus Report on the diagnosis and management of rhinitis. Allergy 1994; 49:S134.
  • 24
    Savilahti E, Saukkonen TT, Virtala ET, Tuomilehto J, Åkerblom HK. Increased levels of cow's milk and beta-lactoglobulin antibodies in young children with newly diagnosed IDDM. The Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group. Diabetes Care 1993; 16:9849.
  • 25
    Saarinen KM, Vaarala O, Klemetti P, Savilahti E. Transforming growth factor-beta1 in mothers' colostrum and immune responses to cows' milk proteins in infants with cows' milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104:10938.
  • 26
    Yazdanbakhsh M, Kremsner PG, Van Ree R. Allergy, parasites, and the hygiene hypothesis. Science 2002; 296:4904.
  • 27
    Maizels RM. Infections and allergy-helminths, hygiene and host immune regulation. Curr Opin Immunol 2005; 17:65661.
  • 28
    Wilson MS, Taylor MD, Balic A, Finney CA, Lamb JR, Maizels RM. Suppression of allergic airway inflammation by helminth-induced regulatory T cells. J Exp Med 2005; 202:1199212.
  • 29
    Voor T, Julge K, Bottcher MF, Jenmalm MC, Duchen K, Bjorksten B. Atopic sensitization and atopic dermatitis in Estonian and Swedish infants. Clin Exp Allergy 2005; 35:1539.
  • 30
    Vartiainen E, Petays T, Haahtela T, Jousilahti P, Pekkanen J. Allergic diseases, skin prick test responses, and IgE levels in North Karelia, Finland, and the Republic of Karelia, Russia. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 109:6438.
  • 31
    Van Den Biggelaar AH, Van Ree R, Rodrigues LC et al. Decreased atopy in children infected with Schistosoma haematobium: a role for parasite-induced interleukin-10. Lancet 2000; 356:17237.
  • 32
    Lynch NR, Lopez RI, Di Prisco-Fuenmayor MC et al. Allergic reactivity and socio-economic level in a tropical environment. Clin Allergy 1987; 17:199207.
  • 33
    Van Den Biggelaar AH, Rodrigues LC, Van Ree R et al. Long-term treatment of intestinal helminths increases mite skin-test reactivity in Gabonese schoolchildren. J Infect Dis 2004; 189:892900.
  • 34
    Isolauri E, Joensuu J, Suomalainen H, Luomala M, Vesikari T. Improved immunogenicity of oral D x RRV reassortant rotavirus vaccine by Lactobacillus casei GG. Vaccine 1995; 13:3102.
  • 35
    Fang H, Elina T, Heikki A, Seppo S. Modulation of humoral immune response through probiotic intake. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2000; 29:4752.
  • 36
    Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Valerius NH, Paerregaard A, Michaelsen KF. Effect of probiotics on gastrointestinal symptoms and small intestinal permeability in children with atopic dermatitis. J Pediatr 2004; 145:6126.
  • 37
    Rodriguez OL, Hagel I, Gonzalez Y et al. Secretory IgA antibody response in Venezuelan children infected with Giardia duodenalis. J Trop Pediatr 2004; 50:6872.
  • 38
    Harris NL, Spoerri I, Schopfer JF et al. Mechanisms of neonatal mucosal antibody protection. J Immunol 2006; 177:625662.
  • 39
    Strachan DP. Hay fever, hygiene, and household size. BMJ 1989; 299:125960.
  • 40
    Umetsu DT. Flu strikes the hygiene hypothesis. Nat Med 2004; 10:2324.