1These authors contributed equally to this work.
Control of cytokine gene transcription in Th1 and Th2 cells
Article first published online: 20 JUL 2008
© 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Clinical & Experimental Allergy
Volume 38, Issue 9, pages 1422–1431, September 2008
How to Cite
Bowen, H., Kelly, A., Lee, T. and Lavender, P. (2008), Control of cytokine gene transcription in Th1 and Th2 cells. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 38: 1422–1431. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2008.03067.x
- Issue published online: 25 AUG 2008
- Article first published online: 20 JUL 2008
Analysis of T-helper cell differentiation to T-helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 lineages has begun to reveal a complex mechanism whereby transcription factors, enzymes that either deposit or remove covalent modifications from histone tails and DNA methylating enzymes are recruited to cytokine genes. Each resultant cell lineage subsequently displays a programme of transcriptional restrictions that firstly, facilitates expression of a particular subset of signature cytokines and secondly, silences expression of the cytokines normally recognized as being markers of the opposite differentiation limb. Some essential proteins in this differentiative paradigm, such as the transcription factors GATA3 and T-bet, are well studied; however, the types of enzymatic activities that these proteins recruit in order to implement differentiation are more obscure. Recent genome-wide studies of histone modifications have begun to clarify how specific modifications of histones impact upon both transcriptional regulation and chromatin organization. Here we review how this information has enlightened our knowledge of how Th1/Th2 differentiation is orchestrated.