Background We recently demonstrated that the T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune response plays an important role in the development of non-eosinophilic inflammation induced by airway exposure of an allergen plus double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). However, the role of lipoxygenase (LO) metabolites in the development of Th1 inflammation is poorly understood.
Objective To evaluate the role of LO metabolites in the development of Th1 inflammation induced by sensitization with an allergen plus dsRNA.
Methods A Th2-allergic inflammation mouse model was created by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide-depleted ovalbumin (OVA, 75 μg) and alum (2 mg) twice, and the Th1 model was created by intranasal application of OVA (75 μg) and synthetic dsRNA [10 μg of poly(I : C)] four times, followed by an intranasal challenge with 50 μg of OVA four times. The role of LO metabolites was evaluated using two approaches: a transgenic approach using 5-LO−/− and 15-LO−/− mice, and a pharmacological approach using inhibitors of cysteinyl leucotriene receptor-1 (cysLTR1), LTB4 receptor (BLT1), and 15-LO.
Results We found that the Th1-allergic inflammation induced by OVA+dsRNA sensitization was similar between 5-LO−/− and wild-type (WT) control mice, although Th2 inflammation induced by sensitization with OVA+alum was reduced in the former group. In addition, dsRNA-induced Th1 allergic inflammation, which is associated with down-regulation of 15-hydroxyeicosateraenoic acids production, was not affected by treatment with cysLTR1 or BLT1 inhibitors, whereas it was significantly lower in 12/15-LO−/− mice compared with WT control mice. Moreover, dsRNA-induced allergic inflammation and the recruitment of T cells following an allergen challenge were significantly inhibited by treatment with a specific 15-LO inhibitor (PD146176).
Conclusion 15-LO metabolites appear to be important mediators in the development of Th1-allergic inflammation induced by sensitization with an allergen plus dsRNA. Our findings suggest that the 15-LO pathway is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of virus-associated asthma characterized by Th1 inflammation.