• 1
    Ewan PW. Anaphylaxis. BMJ 1998; 316:14425.
  • 2
    Johansson SGO, Hourihane JO, Bousquet J et al. A revised nomenclature for allergy: an EAACI position statement from the EAACI nomenclature task force. Allergy 2001; 56:81324.
  • 3
    Laxenaire MC. Drugs and other agents involved in anaphylactic shock occurring during anaesthesia. A French multicenter epidemiological inquiry. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 1993; 12:916.
  • 4
    Laxenaire MC. Epidemiology of anesthetic anaphylactoid reactions. Fourth multicenter survey (July 1994–December 1996). Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 1999; 18:796809.
  • 5
    Mertes PM, Laxenaire MC, Alla F. Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions occurring during anesthesia in France in 1999–2000. Anesthesiology 2003; 99:53645.
  • 6
    Mertes PM, Laxenaire MC. Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions occurring during anaesthesia in France. Seventh epidemiologic survey (January 2001–December 2002). Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2004; 23:113343.
  • 7
    Fisher M, Baldo BA. Anaphylaxis during anaesthesia: current aspects of diagnosis and prevention. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1994; 11:26384.
  • 8
    Fisher MM, Baldo BA. The incidence and clinical features of anaphylactic reactions during anesthesia in Australia. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 1993; 12:97104.
  • 9
    Working Party of the association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Suspected anaphylactic reactions associated with anaesthesia, Vol. 3. London: The association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2003; 120.
  • 10
    Malinovsky JM, Decagny S, Wessel F, Guilloux L, Mertes PM. Systematic follow-up increases incidence of anaphylaxis during adverse reactions in anesthetized patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2008; 52:17581.
  • 11
    Fisher MM. The preoperative detection of risk of anaphylaxis during anaesthesia. Anaesth Intensive Care 2007; 35:899902.
  • 12
    Liccardi G, Lobefalo G, Di FE et al. Strategies for the prevention of asthmatic, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions during the administration of anesthetics and/or contrast media. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008; 18:111.
  • 13
    Ewan PW. Anaphylaxis. In: HolgateST, BousheyHA, FabriLM, eds. Difficult asthma. Informa Health Care, 1999; 52134.
  • 14
    Ewan PW. ABC of allergies: anaphylaxis. BMJ 1998; 316:14425.
  • 15
    Ewan PW. Treatment of anaphylactic reactions. Prescribers' J 1997; 37:12532.
  • 16
    Clark AT, Ewan PW. The prevention and management of anaphylaxis in children. Curr Paediatr 2002; 12:3705.
  • 17
    Harper NJ, Dixon T, Dugue P et al. Suspected anaphylactic reactions associated with anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 2009; 64:199211.
  • 18
    Schwartz LB, Bradford TR, Rouse C et al. Development of a new, more sensitive immunoassay for human tryptase: use in systemic anaphylaxis. J Clin Immunol 1994; 14:190204.
  • 19
    Schwartz LB, Metcalfe DD, Miller JS, Earl H, Sullivan T. Tryptase levels as an indicator of mast-cell activation in systemic anaphylaxis and mastocytosis. N Engl J Med 1987; 316:16226.
  • 20
    Schwartz LB. Diagnostic value of tryptase in anaphylaxis and mastocytosis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2006; 26:45163.
  • 21
    Mirakian R, Ewan PW, Durham SR et al. BSACI guidelines for the management of drug allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 2009; 39:4361.
  • 22
    Working Party of the association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Suspected anaphylactic reactions associated with anaesthesia, Vol. 1. London: The association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1990.
  • 23
    Soar J, Pumphrey R, Cant A et al. Emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions – guidelines for healthcare providers. Resuscitation 2008; 77:15769.
  • 24
    Laxenaire MC, Gueant JL, Bermejo E, Mouton C, Navez MT. Anaphylactic shock due to propofol. Lancet 1988; 2:73940.
  • 25
    Laxenaire MC, Mata-Bermejo E, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Gueant JL. Life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions to propofol (Diprivan). Anesthesiology 1992; 77:27580.
  • 26
    Krumholz W, Muller H, Gerlach H, Russ W, Hempelmann G. A case of anaphylactoid reaction following administration of etomidate. Anaesthesist 1984; 33:1612.
  • 27
    Garvey LH, Roed-Petersen J, Menne T, Husum B. Danish anaesthesia allergy centre – preliminary results. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2001; 45:12049.
  • 28
    Bennett MJ, Anderson LK, McMillan JC, Ebertz JM, Hanifin JM, Hirshman CA. Anaphylactic reaction during anaesthesia associated with positive intradermal skin test to fentanyl. Can Anaesth Soc J 1986; 33:758.
  • 29
    Seed MJ, Ewan PW. Anaphylaxis caused by neostigmine. Anaesthesia 2000; 55:5745.
  • 30
    Laxenaire MC, Mertes PM. Anaphylaxis during anaesthesia. Results of a two-year survey in France. Br J Anaesth 2001; 87:54958.
  • 31
    Laxenaire MC, Moneret-Vautrin DA. Anaphylactic reactions to rocuronium. Br J Anaesth 2000; 85:3256.
  • 32
    Rose M, Fisher M. Rocuronium: high risk for anaphylaxis? Br J Anaesth 2001; 86:67882.
  • 33
    Lagneau F, Corda B, Marty J. Possible underestimation of the relative incidence of anaphylactic reactions to benzylisoquinoline neuromuscular blocking agents. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2003; 20:5778.
  • 34
    Moneret-Vautrin DA, Widmer S, Gueant JL et al. Simultaneous anaphylaxis to thiopentone and a neuromuscular blocker: a study of two cases. Br J Anaesth 1990; 64:7435.
  • 35
    Sanchez-Guerrero IM, Tortosa JA, Hernandez-Palazon J, Escudero AI. Anaphylactoid reaction induced by pancuronium during general anaesthesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1998; 15:6134.
  • 36
    Nasser SM, Ewan PW. Opiate-sensitivity: clinical characteristics and the role of skin prick testing. Clin Exp Allergy 2001; 31:101420.
  • 37
    Levy JH, Brister NW, Shearin A et al. Wheal and flare responses to opioids in humans. Anesthesiology 1989; 70:75660.
  • 38
    Mertes PM, Laxenaire MC, Lienhart A et al. Reducing the risk of anaphylaxis during anaesthesia: guidelines for clinical practice. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2005; 15:91101.
  • 39
    Berg CM, Heier T, Wilhelmsen V, Florvaag E. Rocuronium and cisatracurium-positive skin tests in non-allergic volunteers: determination of drug concentration thresholds using a dilution titration technique. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2003; 47:57682.
  • 40
    Levy JH, Gottge M, Szlam F, Zaffer R, McCall C. Weal and flare responses to intradermal rocuronium and cisatracurium in humans. Br J Anaesth 2000; 85:8449.
  • 41
    Mertes PM, Laxenaire MC, Malinovsky JM, Florvaag E, Moneret-Vautrin DA. Skin sensitivity to rocuronium and vecuronium: prick-tests are not intradermal test. Anesth Analg 2005; 100:153940.
  • 42
    Moneret-Vautrin DA, Kanny G. Anaphylaxis to muscle relaxants: rational for skin tests. Allerg Immunol (Paris) 2002; 34:23340.
  • 43
    Fisher M. Prick testing for neuromuscular blocking drugs. Anesth Analg 2004; 99:18801.
  • 44
    Mertes PM, Laxenaire MC. Adverse reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2004; 4:716.
  • 45
    Dewachter P, Mouton-Faivre C, Pertek JP, Boudaa C, Mertes PM. Value of skin tests for the choice of a neuromuscular blocking agent after an anaphylactic reaction. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2005; 24:5436.
  • 46
    Youngman PR, Taylor KM, Wilson JD. Anaphylactoid reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents: a commonly undiagnosed condition? Lancet 1983; 2:5979.
  • 47
    Tamayo E, Rodriguez-Ceron G, Gomez-Herreras JI, Fernandez A, Castrodeza J, Alvarez FJ. Prick-test evaluation to anaesthetics in patients attending a general allergy clinic. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2006; 23:10316.
  • 48
    Kroigaard M, Garvey LH, Menne T, Husum B. Allergic reactions in anaesthesia: are suspected causes confirmed on subsequent testing? Br J Anaesth 2005; 95:46871.
  • 49
    Fraser BA, Smart JA. Anaphylaxis to cisatracurium following negative skin testing. Anaesth Intensive Care 2005; 33:8169.
  • 50
    Fisher MM, Merefield D, Baldo B. Failure to prevent an anaphylactic reaction to a second neuromuscular blocking drug during anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 1999; 82:7703.
  • 51
    Laxenaire MC. Management of the anesthetic allergic patient. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2002; 21:f936.
  • 52
    Porri F, Lemiere C, Birnbaum J et al. Prevalence of muscle relaxant sensitivity in a general population: implications for a preoperative screening. Clin Exp Allergy 1999; 29:725.
  • 53
    Karila C, Brunet-Langot D, Labbez F et al. Anaphylaxis during anesthesia: results of a 12-year survey at a French pediatric center. Allergy 2005; 60:82834.
  • 54
    Moneret-Vautrin DA, Laxenaire MC, Widmer S, Hummer M. The value of prick tests in the detection of anaphylaxis caused by muscle relaxants. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 1987; 6:3525.
  • 55
    Fisher MM, Bowey CJ. Intradermal compared with prick testing in the diagnosis of anaesthetic allergy. Br J Anaesth 1997; 79:5963.
  • 56
    Mertes PM, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Leynadier F, Laxenaire MC. Skin reactions to intradermal neuromuscular blocking agent injections: a randomized multicenter trial in healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology 2007; 107:24552.
  • 57
    Laxenaire MC, Gastin I, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Widmer S, Gueant JL. Cross-reactivity of rocuronium with other neuromuscular blocking agents. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1995; 11 (Suppl.):5564.
  • 58
    Marone G, Stellato C, Mastronardi P, Mazzarella B. Mechanisms of activation of human mast cells and basophils by general anesthetic drugs. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 1993; 12:11625.
  • 59
    Naguib M, Samarkandi AH, Bakhamees HS, Magboul MA, El-Bakry AK. Histamine-release haemodynamic changes produced by rocuronium, vecuronium, mivacurium, atracurium and tubocurarine. Br J Anaesth 1995; 75:58892.
  • 60
    Hosking MP, Lennon RL, Gronert GA. Combined H1 and H2 receptor blockade attenuates the cardiovascular effects of high-dose atracurium for rapid sequence endotracheal intubation. Anesth Analg 1988; 67:108992.
  • 61
    Harboe T, Guttormsen AB, Irgens A, Dybendal T, Florvaag E. Anaphylaxis during anesthesia in Norway: a 6-year single-center follow-up study. Anesthesiology 2005; 102:897903.
  • 62
    Fisher MM, Baldo BA. Immunoassays in the diagnosis of anaphylaxis to neuromuscular blocking drugs: the value of morphine for the detection of IgE antibodies in allergic subjects. Anaesth Intensive Care 2000; 28:16770.
  • 63
    Ebo DG, Venemalm L, Bridts CH et al. Immunoglobulin E antibodies to rocuronium: a new diagnostic tool. Anesthesiology 2007; 107:2539.
  • 64
    Florvaag E, Johansson SG, Oman H et al. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to morphine. Relation to the high and low incidences of NMBA anaphylaxis in Norway and Sweden, respectively. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2005; 49:43744.
  • 65
    Demaegd J, Soetens F, Herregods L. Latex allergy: a challenge for anaesthetists. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 2006; 57:12735.
  • 66
    Lieberman P. Anaphylactic reactions during surgical and medical procedures. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 110:S649.
  • 67
    Bousquet J, Flahault A, Vandenplas O et al. Natural rubber latex allergy among health care workers: a systematic review of the evidence. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118:44754.
  • 68
    Saxon A, Ownby D, Huard T, Parsad R, Roth HD. Prevalence of IgE to natural rubber latex in unselected blood donors and performance characteristics of AlaSTAT testing. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000; 84:199206.
  • 69
    Yassin MS, Lierl MB, Fischer TJ, O'Brien K, Cross J, Steinmetz C. Latex allergy in hospital employees. Ann Allergy 1994; 72:2459.
  • 70
    Liss GM, Sussman GL, Deal K et al. Latex allergy: epidemiological study of 1351 hospital workers. Occup Environ Med 1997; 54:33542.
  • 71
    Leung R, Ho A, Chan J, Choy D, Lai CK. Prevalence of latex allergy in hospital staff in Hong Kong. Clin Exp Allergy 1997; 27:16774.
  • 72
    Turjanmaa K. Incidence of immediate allergy to latex gloves in hospital personnel. Contact Dermatitis 1987; 17:2705.
  • 73
    Lagier F, Vervloet D, Lhermet I, Poyen D, Charpin D. Prevalence of latex allergy in operating room nurses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992; 90:31922.
  • 74
    Hemery ML, Verdier R, Dahan P, Sellier N, Dujols P, Demoly P. Sensitization to powdered latex gloves: prevalence in hospital employees. Presse Med 2005; 34:13639.
  • 75
    Meeropol E, Frost J, Pugh L, Roberts J, Ogden JA. Latex allergy in children with myelodysplasia: a survey of Shriners hospitals. J Pediatr Orthop 1993; 13:14.
  • 76
    Tosi LL, Slater JE, Shaer C, Mostello LA. Latex allergy in spina bifida patients: prevalence and surgical implications. J Pediatr Orthop 1993; 13:70912.
  • 77
    Chiu AM, Kelly KJ. Anaphylaxis: drug allergy, insect stings, and latex. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2005; 25:389405, viii.
  • 78
    Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters. The diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis: an updated practice parameter. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005; 115:S483523.
  • 79
    Suli C, Lorini M, Mistrello G, Tedeschi A. Diagnosis of latex hypersensitivity: comparison of different methods. Allerg Immunol (Paris) 2006; 38:2430.
  • 80
    Biagini RE, MacKenzie BA, Sammons DL et al. Latex specific IgE: performance characteristics of the IMMULITE 2000 3gAllergy assay compared with skin testing. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006; 97:196202.
  • 81
    Pridgeon C, Wild G, Ashworth F, Egner W, Ward AM. Assessment of latex allergy in a healthcare population: are the available tests valid? Clin Exp Allergy 2000; 30:14449.
  • 82
    Bodtger U, Poulsen LK, Malling HJ. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults: a 3-year follow-up study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003; 111:14954.
  • 83
    Bodtger U, Poulsen LK, Linneberg A. Rhinitis symptoms and IgE sensitization as risk factors for development of later allergic rhinitis in adults. Allergy 2006; 61:7126.
  • 84
    Yip L, Hickey V, Wagner B et al. Skin prick test reactivity to recombinant latex allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000; 121:2929.
  • 85
    Hunt LW, Kelkar P, Reed CE, Yunginger JW. Management of occupational allergy to natural rubber latex in a medical center: the importance of quantitative latex allergen measurement and objective follow-up. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 110:S96106.
  • 86
    Ewan PW, Ackroyd JF. Allergic reactions to drugs. In: WrightDM, ed. Immunology of sexually transmitted diseases. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988; 23760.
  • 87
    Solley GO, Gleich GJ, Van Dellen RG. Penicillin allergy: clinical experience with a battery of skin-test reagents. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982; 69:23844.
  • 88
    Brown BC, Price EV, Moore MB Jr. Penicilloyl-polylysine as an intradermal test of penicillin sensitivity. JAMA 1964; 189:599604.
  • 89
    Heaton CL, Posey RE, Lentz JW. Penicilloyl polylysine skin tests in venereal disease clinics: reaction to the test antigen. In: StewartGT, McGovernJP, eds. Penicillin allergy: clinical and immunologic aspects. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1970; 14755.
  • 90
    Apostolou E, Deckert K, Puy R et al. Anaphylaxis to Gelofusine confirmed by in vitro basophil activation test: a case series. Anaesthesia 2006; 61:2648.
  • 91
    Ewan PW. Adverse reactions to colloids. Anaesthesia 2001; 56:7712.
  • 92
    O'Sullivan S, McElwain JP, Hogan TS. Kinin-mediated anaphylactoid reaction implicated in acute intra-operative pulseless electrical activity. Anaesthesia 2001; 56:76871.
  • 93
    Furhoff AK. Anaphylactoid reaction to dextran – a report of 133 cases. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1977; 21:1617.
  • 94
    Zinderman CE, Landow L, Wise RP. Anaphylactoid reactions to Dextran 40 and 70: reports to the United States Food and Drug Administration, 1969 to 2004. J Vasc Surg 2006; 43:10049.
  • 95
    Nasser SM, Lee TH. Leukotrienes in aspirin-sensitive asthma. In: SzczeklikA, GryglewskiRJ, VaneJR., eds. Eicosanoids, aspirin, and asthma. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker Inc., 1998; 31735.
  • 96
    Szczeklik A. Adverse reactions to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Ann Allergy 1987; 59:1138.
  • 97
    Nizankowska-Mogilnicka E, Bochenek G, Mastalerz L et al. EAACI/GA2LEN guideline: aspirin provocation tests for diagnosis of aspirin hypersensitivity. Allergy 2007; 62:11118.
  • 98
    Maycock EJ, Russell WC. Anaphylactoid reaction to Syntocinon. Anaesth Intensive Care 1993; 21:2112.
  • 99
    Lin MC, Hsieh TK, Liu CA et al. Anaphylactoid shock induced by oxytocin administration – a case report. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan 2007; 45:2336.
  • 100
    Aalto-Korte K, Alanko K, Henriks-Eckerman ML, Jolanki R. Antimicrobial allergy from polyvinyl chloride gloves. Arch Dermatol 2006; 142:132630.
  • 101
    Garvey LH, Kroigaard M, Poulsen LK et al. IgE-mediated allergy to chlorhexidine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 120:40915.
  • 102
    Garvey LH, Roed-Petersen J, Husum B. Is there a risk of sensitization and allergy to chlorhexidine in health care workers? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2003; 47:7204.
  • 103
    Beaudouin E, Kanny G, Morisset M et al. Immediate hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine: literature review. Allerg Immunol (Paris) 2004; 36:1236.
  • 104
    Raut CP, Hunt KK, Akins JS et al. Incidence of anaphylactoid reactions to isosulfan blue dye during breast carcinoma lymphatic mapping in patients treated with preoperative prophylaxis: results of a surgical prospective clinical practice protocol. Cancer 2005; 104:6929.
  • 105
    Haque RA, Wagner A, Ewan PW, Nasser SM. Three cases of suspected type 1 hypersensitivity to Patent Blue V dye. Clin Exp Allergy 2006; 36:1211 (abstract).
  • 106
    Mertes PM, Malinovsky JM, Mouton-Faivre C et al. Anaphylaxis to dyes during the perioperative period: reports of 14 clinical cases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008; 122:34852.
  • 107
    Berkun Y, Ben-Zvi A, Levy Y, Galili D, Shalit M. Evaluation of adverse reactions to local anesthetics: experience with 236 patients. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2003; 91:3425.
  • 108
    Wasserfallen JB, Frei PC. Long-term evaluation of usefulness of skin and incremental challenge tests in patients with history of adverse reaction to local anesthetics. Allergy 1995; 50:1625.
  • 109
    Fisher MM, Munro I. Life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions to muscle relaxants. Anesth Analg 1983; 62:55964.