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Interaction between early maternal smoking and variants in TNF and GSTP1 in childhood wheezing

Authors

  • S. Panasevich,

    1. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
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  • C. Lindgren,

    1. Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
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  • J. Kere,

    1. Clinical Research Centre, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden
    2. Department of Medical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    3. Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
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  • M. Wickman,

    1. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    2. Sachs Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    3. Centre for Allergy Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
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  • G. Pershagen,

    1. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    2. Department of Community Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
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  • F. Nyberg,

    1. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    2. AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden
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  • E. Melén

    1. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    2. Centre for Allergy Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    3. Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
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Correspondence:
S. Panasevich, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: sviatlana.panasevich@ki.se

Summary

Background Children exposed to tobacco smoke early in life have a higher risk of wheeze. Individual susceptibility may depend on genetic factors.

Objective We studied whether variations in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNF, glutathione S transferase P1 (GSTP1) and β2-adrenoreceptor (ADRB2) genes modify the effect of early maternal smoking on the development of childhood asthma, wheeze and allergic sensitization.

Methods In the Swedish prospective birth cohort BAMSE (Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiological Survey) (n=4089), data collection included questionnaires to measure tobacco smoke exposure and clinical outcomes up to age 4 and medical examinations with blood sampling for specific IgE measurements and genotyping. We defined early maternal smoking as daily smoking by the mother during pregnancy and/or postnatally. We investigated five TNF, six GSTP1 and three ADRB2 SNPs in 982 selected wheezers and non-wheezers.

Results An interaction with early maternal smoking was found for three TNF SNPs (−857C/T, Intron 1, Intron 3) with respect to early wheeze (up to 2 years of age). For example, the odds ratio (OR) for developing early wheeze related to early maternal smoking was 2.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–3.7] in children with a wild-type CC homozygote genotype of the TNF−857 SNP, while no tobacco-related risk was seen in children carrying the rare T allele. A clear dose response was observed in children with the CC genotype, with an OR of 1.3 (95% CI 1.1–1.5) per each additional pack per week smoked by the mother during pregnancy. A suggestive interaction with early maternal smoking was also seen for three GSTP1 SNPs (Intron 5, Intron 6 and Ile105Val) with respect to transient wheeze, but not for ADRB2 and wheeze phenotypes. No effect modifications were observed for allergic sensitization.

Conclusion Our results suggest that the risk of early childhood wheeze associated with early maternal smoking may be modified by TNF and GSTP1 polymorphisms.

Cite this as: S. Panasevich, C. Lindgren, J. Kere, M. Wickman, G. Pershagen, F. Nyberg and E. Melén, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2010 (40) 458–467.

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