Production of interleukin-5, -10 and interferon-γ in cord blood is strongly associated with the season of birth
Article first published online: 2 SEP 2010
© 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Clinical & Experimental Allergy
Volume 40, Issue 11, pages 1658–1668, November 2010
How to Cite
Keski-Nisula, L., Lappalainen, M. H. J., Mustonen, K., Hirvonen, M.-R., Pfefferle, P. I., Renz, H., Pekkanen, J. and Roponen, M. (2010), Production of interleukin-5, -10 and interferon-γ in cord blood is strongly associated with the season of birth. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 40: 1658–1668. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2010.03601.x
- Issue published online: 12 OCT 2010
- Article first published online: 2 SEP 2010
- Submitted 28 December 2009; revised 6 July 2010; accepted 13 July 2010
- cord blood;
- season of birth;
Background The effect of labour and different labour-related factors on the cord blood (CB) cell cytokine production is still relatively unknown.
Objective To study the relationships between the production of IL-5, IL-10 and IFN-γ in CB samples and maternal, early neonatal and birth-related factors.
Methods Whole-blood samples were collected after birth (n=423) and they were stimulated for 24 and 48 h with a combination of phorbol ester and ionomycin. Production of IL-5, IL-10 and IFN-γ was determined using ELISA. Maternal, early neonatal and birth-related variables were recorded prospectively during pregnancy, and during and after delivery.
Results After multivariable adjustment for confounders, the strongest predictor of IL-5, IL-10 and IFN-γ production in CB cell samples was the season of birth. Children born in the spring had significantly lower cytokine responses compared with those born in the fall. IL-5 production was inversely associated with female gender of the child and maternal smoking. If corrections for white blood cell (WBC) counts were not performed, IL-5 production was also significantly associated with the mode of delivery. Respectively, the production of IL-10 and IFN-γ was inversely associated with prostaglandin induction before birth.
Conclusion Environmental exposure to pollen and ultraviolet irradiation during gestation may have an effect on the cytokine profile of the offspring in CB because children born in the spring or winter showed the lowest IL-5, IL-10 and IFN-γ responses. The production of IL-10 and IFN-γ was also inversely associated with prostaglandin labour induction before birth. Other labour-related factors were not significantly associated with production of IL-5, IL-10 and IFN-γ after WBC count correction.
Cite this as: L. Keski-Nisula, M. H. J. Lappalainen, K. Mustonen, M.-R. Hirvonen, P. I. Pfefferle, H. Renz, J. Pekkanen and M. Roponen, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2010 (40) 1658–1668.