Clinical & Experimental Allergy

Early onset wheeze associated with enhanced combined IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12/IL-23p40 in LPS-stimulated cord blood mononuclear cells


B. W. Lee and K. Y. Chua, Department of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. E-mail: and


Background Neonates with a family history of atopy are at higher risk for developing wheezing in early life.

Objective From a birth cohort of at risk infants (first-degree family with atopic disease), we evaluated the influence of distinct intrinsic immunologic risk factors on wheezing disorders in the first 2 years of life.

Methods Cord blood samples were collected from 195 eligible subjects of a birth cohort of 253 subjects. The subjects studied were those who developed wheezing (n=34) or eczema (n=29) in the first 2 years of life, and 65 healthy control infants. At the time of thawing the viability of the cells were median 70% (range 67.5%–72.5%). Cytokines from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mononuclear cells were analysed using fluorescent-activated cell sorting-array and their profiles were evaluated using factor analysis.

Results Infants with wheeze were significantly associated with enhanced combined LPS stimulated IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12/IL-23p40 compared with healthy controls (P=0.003). This profile was also associated with the increased risk for wheeze at 2 years of age (OR=2.45; 95% CI=1.50–3.93, P=0.001). LPS-stimulated cytokine IL-8 was also significantly higher in the wheeze group compared with healthy controls and eczema (P=0.003). Intracellular staining showed that monocytes are main producers of IL-6 and IL-8 from cord blood mononuclear cells. Most of the subjects were non-atopic with 3/34 (9%) wheeze and 9/29 (31%) eczema subjects sensitized to the common dietary or inhalant allergens.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance In infants at genetic risk of atopy, wheeze but not eczema in the first 2 years of life is associated with intrinsic hyperresponsive innate cytokine responses which might predispose infants to wheeze development. Distinct pre-symptomatic hyperresponsive innate immune responses risk factors were found to be associated with early onset wheeze disorders, but not eczema.

Cite this as: P. L. Quah, I-C Kuo, C. H. Huang, L. P-C Shek, B. W. Lee and K. Y. Chua, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2011 (41) 970–978.