Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a key pro-allergic cytokine that has recently been linked to chronic airway diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). High levels of TSLP were detected in bronchial mucosa of asthma and COPD patients suggesting TSLP's biological role beyond a signature ‘Th2-favoring’ or ‘pro-allergic cytokine’. Besides inflammatory cells, airway structural cells produce and are targets of TSLP suggesting a potential autocrine loop that may have a profound effect on local inflammatory response and airway remodelling. This review sums up diverse mechanisms that mediate TSLP/TSLP receptor-signalling network in chronic airway diseases.
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