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Summary

Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon, low-grade, malignant, spindle-cell tumour of fibrohistiocytic histogenesis, which can mimic other malignant skin tumours, such as basal and squamous cell carcinoma (CC), melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Three cases of AFX were examined by dermatoscopy, which revealed white areas and an atypical polymorphous vascular pattern characterized by the concurrence of different structures: linear, dotted, hairpin, arborescent and highly tortuous vessels, irregularly distributed over the surface. Seborrhoeic elements and photoageing may be accompanying features depending on the anatomical location of the AFX. AFX may be added to the list of slightly pigmented, reddish, malignant cutaneous tumours, such as SCC, MCC, amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma and eccrine porocarcinoma, which display prominent and chaotic dermatoscopic neoangiogenetic features in more advanced stages of proliferation.