The arachidonic acid metabolites leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) may play an important role in inflammation. It is not known whether these mediators influence the binding of lymphocytes to endothelial cells, a process which is important in the extravasation of lymphocytes in inflammatory states. In the present investigation, the effect of LTB4 and PGE; on the binding interaction between lymphocytes and endothelial cells was examined using a centrifugation cell binding assay. Although LTB4 elicited an aggregation response on human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) and enhanced their binding to endothelial cells it had no effect on lymphocyte binding. By contrast, PGE; caused a dose-dependent inhibition of lymphocyte binding to endothelial cells. The inhibitory effect of PGE2 had a rapid onset but was exhibited only when PGE2 was present continuously during the cell binding assay. Although the mechanism by which PGE; acts is not clear, it may provide a negative feedback mechanism in regulating the influx of lymphocytes into inflammatory sites.