This study examined the relationship ofIL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ with regard to the local granuloma (GR) and draining lymph node (LN) response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Synchronized GR were induced in naive and schistosome-infected mice at the vigorous (8 weeks) and late chronic (20 weeks) stages. In LN cultures, IL-10 and IFN production peaked on day 4 and was greatest for 8 week-infected mice. All GR cultures contained IFN, but compared with naive mice IL-10 production was accelerated at 8 weeks and abrogated at 20 weeks, consistent with expansion and abatement of Th2 activity, Cytokine neutralization was performed in egg-challenged, naive mice that were adoptively sensitized with lymphoid cells from 8 week-infected donors. GR size, GR macrophage tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production and egg antigen-elicited IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IFN were examined on day 4 of GR formation, Anti-IFN augmented GR area by 40%, increased local IL-4 and IL-10, but decreased IFN and TNF production. In corresponding LN cultures, IFN decreased by about 50%, while IL-2, IL-4, IL-IO and lL-5 increased by nearly two-, four-, five- and six-fold, respectively, Anti-IL-10 did not affect GR size or GR cytokines, but increased IFN levels in LN cultures four-fold and decreased IL-2, IL-4, lL-5 and IL-10. Anti-IL-4 abrogated GR area by 40%, along with a reduction in local IL-4 and TNF production. In LN, IL-4 depletion reduced IL-4 and IL-5 by 60–70% and increased IFN levels. These results support the notion of a cross-regulatory network in which IFN inhibits Th2 and IL-10 inhibits ThI cells. IL-4 fosters Th2 cell differentiation in LN, but also performs a critical recruitment function in the eosinophil-rich schistosome egg-induced GR, whereas IFN contributes to enhanced GR macrophage function.