• 1
    Torphy TJ, Undem BJ. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors: new opportunities for the treatment of asthma. Chest 1991; 46:51223.
  • 2
    Giembycz MA, Dent G. Prospects for selective cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 1992; 22:33744.
  • 3
    Torphy TJ, Livi GP, Christensen SB. Novel phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the therapy of asthma. Drug News and Perspectives 1993; 6:20314.
  • 4
    Lowe III JA, Cheng JB. The PDF IV family of calcium-independent phosphodiesterase enzymes. Drugs of the Future 1992; 17:799807.
  • 5
    Cohan VL, Naclerio BA. LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) release by isolated human monocytes is sensitive to agents that elevate intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. J Immunol 1993; 150 (No 8, Pt2):212A.
  • 6
    Sever A, Rapson NT, Hunter CA, Liew FY. Regulation of tumor necrosis factor production by adrenaline and β-adrenergic agonists. J Immunol 1992; 148:34415.
  • 7
    Molnar-Kimber KL, Yonno L, Heaslip RJ et al. Differential regulation of TNF-α and IL-1β production from endotoxin stimulated human mocytes by phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Mediator Infl 1992; 1:4117.
  • 8
    Semmler J, Wachtel H, Endres S. The specific type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram suppresses tumor necrosis factor-production by human mononuclear cells. Int J Immunopharmacol 1993; 15:40913.
  • 9
    Renz H, Gong JH, Schmidt A et al. Release of tumor necrosis factor from macrophages: enhancement and suppression are dose dependently regulated by prostaglandin E2 and cyclic nucleotides. J Immunol 1988; 144:238893.
  • 10
    Sekut L, Champion BR, Page K, Menius JA, Connolly K. Anti-inflammatory activity of salmeterol: down regulation of cytokine production. Clin Exp Immunol 1995; 99:4616.
  • 11
    Livi GP, Kmetz P, McHale MM et al. Cloning and expression of cDNA for a human low-Km, rolipram-sensitive cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. Mol Cell Biol 1990; 10:2678786.
  • 12
    Jäättelä M. Biology of disease; biologic activites and mechanisms of action of tumor necrosis factor-α/cachectin. Lab Invest 1991; 64:72442.
  • 13
    Piquet PF, Grau GE, Vassalli P. Tumor necrosis factor and imunopathology. Immunol Res 1991; 10:12240.
  • 14
    Fiers W. Tumor necrosis factor; characterization at the molecular, cellular and in vivo level. FEBS 1991; 285:199212.
  • 13
    Pfeffer K, Matsuyama T, Kunding TM et al. Mice deficient for the 55 kD tumor necrosis factor receptor are resistant to endotoxic shock, yet succumb to L. monocytogenes infection. Cell (USA) 1993; 73:45767.
  • 16
    Sekut L, Menius JA Jr, Brackeen MF et al. Evaluation of the significance of elevated levels of systemic and localized TNF in different animal models of inflammation. J Lab Clin Med 1994; 124:81320.
  • 17
    Smith-Oliver T, Noel LS, Stimpson SA et al. Elevated levels of TNF in the joints of adjuvant arthritic rats. Cytokine 1993; 5:298305.
  • 18
    Lowe JA, Archer RL, Chapin DS et al. Structure-activity relationship of quinazolinedione inhibitors of calcium-independent phophodiesterase. J Med Chem 1991; 34:6248.
  • 19
    Connolly KM, Stecher VJ, Kent L. Examination of interleukin-1 activity, the acute phase response, and leukocyte subpopulactions in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. J Lab Clin Med 1988; 111:3417.
  • 20
    Clark RL, Cuttino JT, Anderle SK et al. Radiologic analysis of arthritis in rats after systemic injection of streptococcal cell walls. Arthritis Rheum 1979; 22:2535.
  • 21
    Verghese MW, Brown TA, Irsula O et al. Anti-neutrophil activity of cyclic nucleotides with varying cardiotonic potencies. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1989; 21:S61.
  • 22
    Nielson CP, Vestal RE, Sturm RJ et al. Effects of selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors on the polymorphonuclear leukocyte respiratory burst. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990; 86: 8018.
  • 23
    Peachell PT, Undem BJ, Schleimer RP et al. Preliminary identification and role of phosphodiesterase isoenzymes in human basophils. Immunology 1992; 148:250310.
  • 24
    Lewis AJ, Carlson RP, Chang J. Experimental models of inflammation. In: BontaIL, BragMA, ParnhamMJ, eds. The pharmacology of inflammation. New York : Elsevier 1985: 37197.
  • 25
    McLaughlin MM, Cieslinskl LB, Burman M et al. A low Km, rolipram-sensitive, cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase from human brain. J Biol Chem 1993; 268:64706.
  • 26
    Beavo JA, Reifsnyder DH. Primary sequence of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isozymes and the design of selective inhibitors. Trends Pharm Sci 1990; 11:1505.
  • 27
    Griswold DE, Webb EF, Breton J et al. Effect of selective phosphodiesterase type IV inhibitor, rolipram, on fluid and cellular phases of inflammatory response. Inflammation 1993; 17:33344.
  • 28
    Neilson CP, Vestal RE, Sturm RJ et al. Effects of selective phophodiesterase inhibitors on the polymorphonuclear leukocyte respiratory burst. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990; 86:8018.
  • 29
    Peachell PT, Undem BJ, Schleimer RP et al. Preliminary identification and role of phosphodiesterase isozymes in human basophiis. J Immunol 1992; 148:250310.
  • 30
    Robicsek SA, Blanchard DK, Djeu JY et al. Multiple high-affinity cAMP-phosphodiesterases in human T-lymphocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 1991; 42:86977.