• 1
    Simon GL, Gorbach SL. Intestinal flora in health and disease. Gastroenterology 1984; 86:17493.
  • 2
    Gorbach SL, Nahas L. Lerner PI. Weinstein L. Studies on intestinal microflora. I Effects of diet, age, and periodic sampling on numbers of fecal microorganisms in man. Gastroenterology 1967; 53:84555.
  • 3
    Zubrzycki L, Spaulding EH. Studies on the stability of the normal fecal flora. J Bacteriol 1962; 83:96874.
  • 4
    Moore WEC, Holdeman LV. Discussion of current bacteriologic investigations of the relationship between intestinal flora, diet, and colon cancer. Cancer Res 1975; 35:341820.
  • 5
    Kenworthy R. Observations on the reaction of the intestineal mucosa to bacterial challenge. J Clin Pathol 1971; 24:13842.
  • 6
    Pirzer U, Schásánhaar A, Fleischer B, Hermann E, Meyer zum Büschenfelde KH. Reactivity of infiltrating T lymphocytes with microbial antigens in Crohn's disease. Lancet 1991; 338:12389.
  • 7
    Sartor RB. Role of the intestinal microflora in pathogenesis and complications. In: SchölmerichJ, KruisW, GoebellH, HohenbergerW, GrossV, Eds. Inflammatory bowel diseases: pathophysiology as basis of treatment. Lancaster : Kluwer Academic, 1992:17587.
  • 8
    Schlaak JF, Hermann E, Ringhoffer M, Probst P, Gallati H, Meyer zum Büschenfelde KH, Fleischer B. Predominance of Thl-type T cells in synovial fluid of patients with Yersinia-induced reactive arthritis. Eur J Immunol, 1992; 11:27716.
  • 9
    Gately MK, Chizzonite R. Measurement of human and mouse interleukin 12. In: ColiganJE, KruisbeekAM, MarguliesDH et al., Eds. Current protocols in immunology. New York : Greene Publishing Associates and Wiley-Interscience, 1992; 616. 18.
  • 10
    Ibbotson JP, Lowes JR, Chahal H el al. Mucosal cell-mediated immunity to mycobacterial, enterobacterial and other microbial antigens in inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Exp Immunol 1992; 87:22430.
  • 11
    Kawabe Y, Ochi A. Programmed cell death and extrathymic reduction of Vβ8 CD4+ T cells in mice tolerant to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B. Nature 1991; 349:2458.
  • 12
    Posnett DN, Schmelkin I, Burton DA, August A, McGrath H, Mayer LF. T cell antigen receptor V gene usage. Increases in Vβ8 T cells in Crohn's disease. J Clin Invest 1990; 85:17706.
  • 13
    Aisenberg J, Ebert EC, Mayer LF. T cell activation in human intestinal mucosa: the role of superantigens. Gastroenterology 1993; 105:142130.
  • 14
    James SP. (Editorial) Potential role of superantigens in gastrointestinal disease. Gastoentcrology 1993; 105:156971.
  • 15
    Trinchieri G. Interleukin-12 and its role in the generation of Th1 cells. Immunol Today 1993; 14:3357.
  • 16
    Yanagida T, Kato T, Igarashi O, Inoue T, Nariuchi H. Second signal activity of IL-12 on the proliferation and IL-2R expression of T Helper cell-1 clones. J Immunol 1994; 152:491928.
  • 17
    Haanen JB, De Waal Malefijit R, Res P, Kraakman EM, Ottenhoff TH, de Vries RR, Spits H. Selection of a human T helper type 1-like T cell subset by mycobacteria. J Exp Med 1991; 174:58392.
  • 18
    Mowat AM. The regulation of immune responses to dietary protein antigens. Immunol Today 1987; 8:9398.
  • 19
    Bruce MG, Elson CO. Oral immunization and oral tolerance. In: ShanahanSTa. F, ed. Immunolgy and immunopathology of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. New York : Igaku-Shoin Medical Publishers, Inc., 1990; 17182.
  • 20
    Bretscher P, Cohn M. A theory of self-nonself discrimination. Science 1970; 169:10423.
  • 21
    Schwartz R. A cell culture model for T lymphocyte clonal anergy. Science 1990; 248:134956.
  • 22
    Webb S, Morris C, Sprent J. Extrathymic tolerance of mature T cells: clonal elimination as a consequence of immunity. Cell 1990; 63:124956.
  • 23
    Jones LA, Chin LT, Longo DL, Kruisbeek AM. Peripheral clonal elimination of functional T cells. Science 1990; 250:17269.
  • 24
    Mattingly JA, Eardley DD, Kemp JD, Gershon RK. Induction of suppressor cells in rat spleen: influence of microbial stimulation. J Immunol 1979; 122:78790.
  • 25
    McGhee JR, Kiyono H, Michalek SM, Babb JL, Mergenhagen SE. Lipopolysaccharide (LPC) regulation of the immune response: T lymphocytes from normal mice suppress mitogenic and immunogenic responses to LPS. J Immunol 1980; 124:160311.
  • 26
    Del Prete G, De Carli M, Almerigogna F, Giudizi MG, Biagiotti R, Romagnani S. Human IL-10 is produced by both type 1 helper (Th1) and type 2 helper (Th2) T cell clones and inhibits their antigen-specific proliferation and cytokine production. J Immunol 1993; 150:35360.
  • 27
    Janeway CA. The immune system evolved to discriminate infectious nonself from noninfectious self Immunol Today 1992; 13:1116.
  • 28
    van de Merwe JP, Schroder AM, Wensinck F, Hazenberger MP. The obligate anaerobic fecal flora of patients with Crohn's disease and their first degree relatives. Scand J Gastroenterol 1988; 23:112531.
  • 29
    van der Wiel-Korstanje JAA, Winkler KC. The fecal flora in ulcerative colitis. J Med Microbiol 1975; 8:491501.
  • 30
    Ruseler-van Embden JHH, Both-Patoir HC. Anaerobic Gramnegative faecal flora in patients with Crohn's disease and healthy subjects. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 1983; 49:12532.
  • 31
    Keighley MRB, Arabi Y, Dimock F, Burdon DW, Allan RN, Alexander-Williams J. Influence of inflammatory bowel disease on intestinal microflora. Gut 1978; 19:1099104.