• 1
    Sartor RB. Animal models of intestinal inflammation. In: SartorRB, SandbornWJ, eds. Kirsner's Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 6th edn. London: Elsevier 2004, 12037.
  • 2
    Hammer RE, Maika SD, Richardson JA, Tang JP, Taurog JD. Spontaneous inflammatory disease in transgenic rats expressing HLA-B27 and human β2m. An animal model of HLA-B27-associated human disorders. Cell 1990; 63: 1099112.
  • 3
    Rath HC, Herfarth HH, Ikeda JS et al. Normal luminal bacteria, especially Bacteroides species, mediate chronic colitis, gastritis, and arthritis in HLA-B27/human beta2 microglobulin transgenic rats. J Clin Invest 1996; 98: 94553.
  • 4
    Taurog JD, Richardson JA, Croft JT et al. The germ-free state prevents the development of gut and joint inflammatory disease in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. J Exp Med 1994; 180: 235964.
  • 5
    Rath H, Wilson K, Sartor RB. Differential induction of colitis and gastritis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats selectively colonized with Bacteroides vulgatus or Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 1999; 67: 296974.
  • 6
    Rath H, Ikeda J, Linde HJ, Scholmerich J, Wilson KH, Sartor RB. Varying cecal bacterial loads influences colitis and gastritis in HLA–B27 transgenic rats. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 3109.
  • 7
    Rath HC, Schultz M, Freitag RR, Dieleman LA, Li F, Linde HJ, Scholmerich J, Sartor RB. Different subsets of enteric bacteria induce and perpetuate experimental colitis in rats and mice. Infect Immun 2001; 69: 227785.
  • 8
    Hoentjen F, Hermsen HJ, Braat H, Torrice CD, Mann BA, Sartor RB, Dieleman LA. Antibiotics with a selective aerobic or anaerobic spectrum have different therapeutic activities in various regions of the colon in interleukin-10 gene deficient mice. Gut 2003; 52: 17217.
  • 9
    Madsen KL, Doyle JS, Tavernini MM, Jewell LD, Rennie RP, Fedorak RN. Antibiotic therapy attenuates colitis in interleukin-10 gene-deficient mice. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 1094105.
  • 10
    Cong Y, Brandwein S, McCabe RP et al. CD4+ T cells reactive to enteric bacterial antigens in spontaneously colitic C3H/HeJBir mice: increased T helper cell type 1 response and ability to transfer disease. J Exp Med 1998; 187: 85564.
  • 11
    Herfarth H, Mohanty S, Rath H, Tonkonogy S, Sartor RB. Interleukin-10 therapy suppresses experimental chronic, granulomatous inflammation induced by bacterial cell wall polymers. Gut 1996; 39: 83645.
  • 12
    Nudel U, Zakut R, Shani M, Neuman S, Levy Z, Yaffe D. The nucleotide sequence of the rat cytoplasmic beta-actin gene. Nucl Acids Res 1983; 11: 175971.
  • 13
    Dijkema R, Van Der Meide PH, Dubbeld M, Caspers M, Wubben J, Schellekens H. Cloning, expression, and purification of rat IFN-gamma. Meth Enzymol 1986; 119: 45364.
  • 14
    Fesser W, Freimark BD. Nucleotide sequence of rat pro-interleukin-1 beta mRNA. Genbank, 1992. Accession: M98820.
  • 15
    Mathieson PW, Gillespie KM. Cloning of a partial cDNA for rat interleukin-12 (IL-12) and analysis of IL-12 expression in vivo. Scand J Immunol 1996; 44: 114.
  • 16
    Van Tol E, Holt L, Li F et al. Bacterial cell wall polymers promote intestinal fibrosis by direct stimulation of myofibroblasts. Am J Physiol 1999; 277: G24555.
  • 17
    Breban M, Fernandez-Sueiro J, Richardson J, Hadavand RR, Maika SD, Hammer RE, Taurog JD. T cells, but not thymic exposure to HLA-B27, are required for the inflammatory disease of HLA-B27 transgenic rats. J Immunol 1996; 156: 794803.
  • 18
    May E, Dorris ML, Satumtira N, Iqbal I, Rehman MI, Lightfoot E, Taurog JD. CD8 alpha beta T cells are not essential to the pathogenesis of arthritis or colitis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. J Immunol 2003; 170: 1099105.
  • 19
    Boyle LH, Hill Gaston JS. Breaking the rules. the unconventional recognition of HLA-B27 by CD4+ T lymphocytes as an insight into the pathogenesis of the spondyloarthropathies. Rheumatology 2003; 42: 40412.
  • 20
    Allen RL, Bowness P, McMichael A. The role of HLA-B27 in spondyloarthritis. Immunogenetics 1999; 50: 2207.
  • 21
    Trobonjaca Z, Leithauser F, Moller P, Bluethmann H, Koezuka Y, MacDonald HR, Reimann J. MHC-II-independent CD4+ T cells induce colitis in immunodeficient RAG-/- hosts. J Immunol 2001; 166: 380412.
  • 22
    Harris DP, Haynes L, Sayles PC et al. Reciprocal regulation of polarized cytokine production by effector B and T cells. Nat Immunol 2000; 1: 47582.
  • 23
    Homann D, Tishon A, Berger DP, Weigle WO, Von Herrath MG, Oldstone MB. Evidence for an underlying CD4 helper and CD8 T-cell defect in B-cell-deficient mice: failure to clear persistent virus infection after adoptive immunotherapy with virus-specific memory cells from muMT/muMT mice. J Virol 1998; 72: 920816.
  • 24
    Shu U, Kiniwa M, Wu CY, Maliszewski C, Vezzio N, Hakimi J, Gately M, Delespesse G. Activated T cells induce interleukin-12 production by monocytes via CD40-CD40 ligand interaction. Eur J Immunol 1995; 25: 11258.
  • 25
    Moore KW, O'Garra A, De Waal Malefyt R, Vieira P, Mosmann TR. Interleukin-10. Annu Rev Immunol 1993; 11: 16590.
  • 26
    Tripp CS, Wolf SF, Unanue ER. Interleukin 12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha are costimulators of interferon gamma production by natural killer cells in severe combined immunodeficiency mice with listeriosis, and interleukin 10 is a physiologic antagonist. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1993; 90: 3725.
  • 27
    Moore KW, De Waal Malefyt R, Coffman RL, O'Garra A. Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor. Annu Rev Immunol 2001; 19: 683765.
  • 28
    Kuhn R, Lohler J, Rennick D, Rajewsky K, Muller W. Interleukin-10-deficient mice develop chronic enterocolitis. Cell 1993; 75: 26374.
  • 29
    Sellon RK, Tonkonogy S, Schultz M, Dieleman LA, Grenther W, Balish E, Rennick DM, Sartor RB. Resident enteric bacteria are necessary for development of spontaneous colitis and immune system activation in interleukin-10-deficient mice. Infect Immun 1998; 11: 522431.29.
  • 30
    Kim SC, Tonkonogy SL, Sartor RB. Role of endogenous IL-10 in downregulating proinflammatory cytokine expression. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: A 967.
  • 31
    Cong Y, Weaver CT, Lazenby , A, Elson CO. Bacterial-reactive T regulatory cells inhibit pathogenic immune responses to the enteric flora. J Immunol 2002; 169: 61129.
  • 32
    Asseman C, Mauze S, Leach MW, Coffman RL, Powrie F. An essential role for interleukin 10 in the function of regulatory T cells that inhibit intestinal inflammation. J Exp Med 1999; 190: 9951004.
  • 33
    Powrie F, Leach MW, Mauze S, Menon S, Caddle LB, Coffman RL. Inhibition of Th1 responses prevents inflammatory bowel disease in scid mice reconstituted with CD45RBhi CD4+ T cells. Immunity 1994; 1: 55362.
  • 34
    Van Montfrans C, Rodriguez Pena MS, Pronk I, Ten Kate FJ, Te Velde AA, Van Deventer SJ. Prevention of colitis by interleukin 10-transduced T lymphocytes in the SCID mice transfer model. Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 21404.
  • 35
    Berg DJ, Davidson N, Kühn R et al. Enterocolitis and colon cancer in interleukin-10 deficient mice are associated with aberrant cytokine production and CD4+ TH1-like responses. J Clin Invest 1996; 98: 101020.
  • 36
    Schreiber S, Fedorak RN, Nielsen OH et al. Safety and efficacy of recombinant interleukin 10 in chronic active Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease IL-10 Cooperative Study Group. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 146172.
  • 37
    Steidler L, Hans W, Schotte L, Neirynck S, Obermeier F, Falk W, Fiers W, Remaut E. Treatment of murine colitis by Lactococcus lactis secreting interleukin-10. Science 2000; 289: 13525.
  • 38
    Lindsay JO, Ciesielski CJ, Scheinin T, Brennan FM, Hodgson HJ. Local delivery of adenoviral vectors encoding murine interleukin 10 induces colonic interleukin 10 production and is therapeutic for murine colitis. Gut 2003; 52: 3639.
  • 39
    Toms C, Powrie F. Control of intestinal inflammation by regulatory cells. Microb Infect 2001; 3: 92935.
  • 40
    Shull MM, Ormsby I, Kier AB et al. Targeted disruption of the mouse transforming growth factor-beta gene results in multifocal inflammatory disease. Nature 1992; 359: 6939.
  • 41
    Nakamura K, Kitani A, Strober W. Cell contact-dependent immunosuppression by CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells is mediated by cell surface-bound transforming growth factor beta. J Exp Med 2001; 194: 62944.
  • 42
    Kitani A, Fuss IJ, Nakamura K, Schwartz OM, Usui T, Strober W. Treatment of experimental (Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid) colitis by intranasal administration of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 plasmid. TGF-beta1-mediated suppression of T helper cell type 1 response occurs by interleukin (IL)-10 induction and IL-12 receptor beta2 chain downregulation. J Exp Med 2000; 192: 4152.
  • 43
    Korganow AS, Ji H, Mangialaio S et al. From systemic T cell self-reactivity to organ-specific autoimmune disease via immunoglobulins. Immunity 1999; 10: 45161.
  • 44
    Moulin V, Andris F, Thielemans K, Maliszewski C, Urbain J, Moser M. B lymphocytes regulate dendritic cell (DC) function in vivo: increased interleukin-12 production by DCs from B cell-deficient mice results in T helper cell Type 1 deviation. J Exp Med 2000; 192: 47582.
  • 45
    Gonnella PA, Waldner HP, Weiner HL. B cell-deficient (mu MT) mice have alterations in the cytokine microenvironment of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and a defect in the low dose mechanism of oral tolerance. J Immunol 2001; 166: 445664.
  • 46
    Mizoguchi E, Mizoguchi A, Preffer FI, Bhan AK. Regulatory role of mature B cells in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. Int Immunol 2000; 12: 597605.
  • 47
    O'Garra A, Chang R, Go N, Go N, Hastings R, Haughton G, Howard M. Ly-1 B (B-1) cells are the main source of B cell derived interleukin-10. Eur J Immunol 1992; 22: 7117.
  • 48
    Mizoguchi A, Mizoguchi E, Takedatsu H, Blumberg RS, Bhan AK. Chronic intestinal inflammatory condition generates IL-10-producing regulatory B cell subset characterized by CD1d upregulation. Immunity 2002; 16: 21930.
  • 49
    Dalwadi H, Wei B, Schrage M, Su TT, Rawlings DJ, Braun J. B cell developmental requirement for the Gαi2 gene. J Immunol 2003; 170: 170715.
  • 50
    Mauri C, Gray D, Mushtaq N, Londei M. Prevention of arthritis by interleukin 10-producing B cells. J Exp Med 2003; 197: 489501.
  • 51
    Kehrl JH, Roberts AB, Wakefield LM, Jakowlew S, Sporn MB, Fauci AS. Transforming growth factor beta is an important immunomodulatory protein for human B lymphocytes. J Immunol 1986; 137: 385560.
  • 52
    Tian J, Zekzer D, Hanssen L, Lu Y, Olcott A, Kaufman DL. Lipopolysaccharide-activated B cells down-regulate Th1 immunity and prevent autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol 2001; 167: 10819.
  • 53
    Barton GM, Medzhitov R. Control of adaptive immune responses by Toll-like receptors. Curr Opin Immunol 2002; 14: 3803.