• 1
    Roberts AB, Sporn MB. The transforming growth factor βs. In: SpornMB, RobertsAB, eds. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Peptide Growth Factors and Their Receptors, Vol. 95. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990: 41972.
  • 2
    Raghow R, Postlethwaite AE, Keski-Oja J, Moses HL, Kang AH. Transforming growth factor-β increases steady-state levels of type-I procollagen and fibronectin messenger RNAs posttranscriptionally in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. J Clin Invest 1987; 79: 12858.
  • 3
    Varga J, Rosenbloom J, Jimenez SA. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) causes a persistent increase in steady-state amounts of type I and type III collagen and fibronectin mRNAs in normal human dermal fibroblasts. Biochem J 1987; 247: 597604.
  • 4
    Ignotz RA, Endo T, Massague J. Regulation of cell adhesion receptors by transforming growth factor-beta. J Biol Chem 1987; 246: 38992.
  • 5
    Eitsman DT, McCoy RD, Zheng X, Fay WP, Shen T, Ginsburg D, Simon RH. Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in transgenic mice that either lack or overexpress the murine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene. J Clin Invest 1996; 97: 2327.
  • 6
    Swaisgood CM, French EL, Noga C, Simon RH, Ploplis VA. The development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice deficient for components of the fibrinolytic system. Am J Pathol 2000; 157: 17787.
  • 7
    Laiho M, Saksela O, Andreasen PA, Keski-Oja J. Enhanced production and extracellular deposition of the endothelial-type plasminogen activator on cultured human lung fibroblasts by transforming growth factor beta. J Cell Biol 1986; 103: 240310.
  • 8
    Laiho M, Saksela O, Keske-Oja J. Transforming growth factor beta alters plasminogen activator activity in human skin fibroblasts. Exp Cell Res 1986; 164: 399407.
  • 9
    Laiho M, Saksela O, Keski-Oja J. Transforming growth factor-beta induction of type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor: Pericellular deposition and sensitivity to exogenous urokinase. J Biol Chem 1987; 262: 1746774.
  • 10
    Heat JK. Transforming growth factor beta modulates the expression of collagenase and metalloproteinases inhibitor. EMBO J 1987; 6: 1899904.
  • 11
    Denner S, Itoh S, Vivien D, Dijke PT, Huet S, Gauthier JM. Direct binding of Smad3 and Smad4 to critical TGF-β-inducible elements in the promoter of human plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1 gene. EMBO J 1998; 17: 3091100.
  • 12
    Gong R, Rifai A, Tolbert EM, Centracchio JN, Dworkin LD. Hepatocyte growth factor modulates matrix metalloproteinases and plasminogen activator/plasmin proteolytic pathways in progressive renal interstitial fibrosis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14: 304760.
  • 13
    Zhang LP, Takahara T, Yata Y, Furui K, Jin B, Kawada N, Watanabe A. Increased expression of plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor during liver fibrogenesis of rats: Role of stellate cells. J Hepatol 1999; 31: 70311.
  • 14
    Olman MA, Mackman N, Gladson CL, Moser KM, Loskutoff DJ. Changes in procoagulant and fibrinolytic gene expression during bleomycin-induced lung injury in the mouse. J Clin Invest 1995; 96: 162130.
  • 15
    Kotani I, Sato A, Hayakawa H, Urano T, Takada Y, Takada A. Increased procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activities in the lungs with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Thromb Res 1995; 15: 493504.
  • 16
    Sisson TH, Hattori N, Xu Y, Simon RH. Treatment of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by transfer of urokinase-type plasminogen activator genes. Hum Gene Ther 1999; 10: 231523.
  • 17
    Romer J, Bugge TH, Pyke C, Lund LR, Flick MJ, Degen JL, Dano K. Impaired wound healing in mice with a disrupted plasminogen gene. Nature Med 1996; 2: 28792.
  • 18
    Chan JC, Duszczyszyn DA, Castellino FJ, Ploplis VA. Accelerated skin wound healing in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-deficient mice. Am J Pathol 2001; 159: 16818.
  • 19
    Yamamoto T, Takagawa S, Katayama I, Yamazaki K, Hamazaki Y, Shinkai H, Nishioka K. Animal model of sclerotic skin. I. Local injections of bleomycin induce sclerotic skin mimicking scleroderma. J Invest Dermatol 1999; 112: 45662.
  • 20
    Yamamoto T, Takahashi Y, Takagawa S, Katayama I, Nishioka K. Animal model of sclerotic skin. II. Bleomycin induced scleroderma in genetically mast cell deficient WBB6F1-W/WV mice. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 262834.
  • 21
    Yamamoto T, Kuroda M, Nishioka K. Animal model of sclerotic skin. III. Histopathological comparison of bleomycin-induced scleroderma in various mice strains. Arch Dermatol Res 2000; 292: 53541.
  • 22
    Yamamoto T, Nishioka K. Animal model of sclerotic skin. IV. Induction of dermal sclerosis by bleomycin is T cell independent. J Invest Dermatol 2001; 117: 9991001.
  • 23
    Yamamoto T, Nishioka K. Animal model of sclerotic skin. V. Increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in fibroblastic cells in bleomycin-induced scleroderma. Clin Immunol 2002; 102: 7783.
  • 24
    Lijnen HR, Van Hoef B, Lupu F, Moons L, Carmeliet P, Collen D. Function of plasminogen/plasmin and matrix metalloproteinases systems after vascular injury in mice with targeted inactivation of fibrinolytic system genes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998; 18: 103545.
  • 25
    Keski-Oja J, Raghow R, Sawdey M, Loskutoff DJ, Postlethwaite AE, Kang AH, Moses HL. Regulation of mRNAs for type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor, fibronectin, and type Tprocollagen by transforming growth factor-beta: Divergent responses in lung fibroblasts and carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem 1988; 263: 31115.
  • 26
    Overall CM, Wrana JL, Sodek J. Transforming growth factor–beta regulation of collagenase, 72 kDa-progelatinase, TIMP and PAI-1 expression in rat bone cell populations and human fibroblasts. Connect Tissue Res 1989; 20: 28994.
  • 27
    Wright JK, Cawston TE, Hazleman BL. Transforming growth factor beta stimulates the production of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) by human synovial and skin fibroblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 1991; 1094: 20710.
  • 28
    Roberts AB. Molecular and cell biology of TGF-beta. Miner Electrolyte Meta 1998; 24: 1119.
  • 29
    Higgins PJ, Slack JK, Diegelmann RF, Staiano-Coico L. Differential regulation of PAI-1 gene expression in human fibroblasts predisposed to a fibrotic phenotype. Exp Cell Res 1999; 248: 63442.
  • 30
    Tuan TL, Zhu JY, Sun B, Nichter LS, Nimni ME, Laug WE. Elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 may account for the altered fibrinolysis by keloid fibroblasts. J Invest Dermatol 1996; 106: 100711.
  • 31
    Dong C, Zhu S, Wang T et al. Deficient Smad7 expression: a putative molecular defect in scleroderma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99: 390813.
  • 32
    Ames PRJ, Lupolo S, Alves J et al. The coagulation/fibrinolysis balance in systemic sclerosis: Evidence for a haematological stress syndrome. Br J Rheumatol 1997; 36: 104550.
  • 33
    Lee P, Norman CS, Sukenik S, Alderdice CA. The clinical significance of coagulation abnormalities in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). J Rheumatol 1985; 12: 5147.
  • 34
    Woessner JF, Nagase H. Matrix Metalloproteinases and Timps. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • 35
    Hertig A, Berrou J, Allory Y, Breton L, Commo F, Costa De Beauregard MA, Carmeliet P, Rondeau E. Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor deficiency aggravates the course experimental glomerulonephritis through overactivation of transforming growth factor beta. FASEB J 2003; 17: 19046.
  • 36
    Kolb M, Bonniaud P, Galt T, Sime PJ, Kelly MM, Margetts PJ, Gauldie J. Differences in the fibrogenic response after transfer of active transforming growth factor-β1 gene to lungs of ‘fibrosis-prone’ and ‘fibrosis-resistant’ mouse strains. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2002; 27: 14150.
  • 37
    Kruithof EK, Vassalli JD, Schleuning WD, Mattaliano RJ, Bachmann F. Purification and characterization of a plasminogen activator inhibitor from the histiocytic lymphoma cell line U-937. J Biol Chem 1986; 261: 1120713.