• 1
    Melnikoff MJ, Horan PK, Morahan PS. Kinetics of changes in peritoneal-cell populations following acute inflammation. Cell Immunol 1989; 118: 17891.
  • 2
    Kaplanski G, Marin V, Montero-Julian F, Mantovani A, Farnarier C. IL6: a regulator of the transition from neutrophil to monocyte recruitment during inflammation. Trends Immunol 2003; 24: 259.
  • 3
    Savill J. Apoptosis in resolution of inflammation. J Leukoc Biol 1997; 61: 37580.
  • 4
    Watson RM, Redmond HP, Wang LH, Condron C, Bouchier-Hayes D. Neutrophil undergo apoptosis following ingestion of Escherichia coli. J Immunol 1996; 156: 398692.
  • 5
    Zhang B, Hirahashi J, Cullere X, Mayadas T. Elucidation of molecular events leading to neutrophil apoptosis following phagocytosis. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 2844354.
  • 6
    Kobayashi SD, Voyich JM, Somerville GA et al. An apoptosis-differentiation program in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes facilitates resolution of inflammation. J Leukoc Biol 2003; 73: 31522.
  • 7
    Savill J, Haslett C. Fate of neutrophil. In: HellewellPG, WilliamsTJ, eds. Immunopharmacology of Neutrophils. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1994: 295314.
  • 8
    Härter L, Mica L, Stocker R, Trentz O, Keel M. Mcl-1 correlates with reduced apoptosis in neutrophils from patients with sepsis. J Am Coll Surg 2003; 197: 96473.
  • 9
    Haslett C. Granulocyte apoptosis and its role in the resolution and control of lung inflammation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999; 160: 511.
  • 10
    Babior BM, Kipnes RS, Curnutte JT. Biological defense mechanisms. The production by leukocytes of superoxide, a potential bactericidal agent. J Clin Invest 1973; 52: 7414.
  • 11
    Brenneis HA, Schmidt A, Blaas-Mautner P, Wörner I, Ludwig R, Hänsch GM. Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in patients suffering from recurrent infection. Eur J Clin Invest 1993; 23: 6938.
  • 12
    Iking-Konert C, Csekö C, Wagner C, Stegmaier S, Andrassy K, Hänsch GM. Transdifferentiation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. acquisition of CD83 and other functional characteristics of dendritic cells. J Mol Med 2001; 79: 46474.
  • 13
    Fjaertoft G, Hakansson L, Ewald U, Foucard T, Venge P. Neutrophils from term and preterm newborn infants express the high affinity Fcgamma-receptor I (CD64) during bacterial infections. Pediatric Res 1999; 45: 8716.
  • 14
    Wagner C, Deppisch R, Denefleh B, Hug F, Andrassy K, Hänsch GM. Expression patterns of the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14, and the Fc gamma receptors CD16 and CD64 on polymorphonuclear neutrophils: data from patients with severe bacterial infections and lipopolysaccharide exposed cells. Shock 2003; 19: 512.
  • 15
    Kharazmi A, Nielsen H, Bendtzen K. Modulation of human neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis and superoxide responses by recombinant TNF-alpha and GM-CSF. Immunobiology 1988; 177: 36370.
  • 16
    Bajaj MS, Kew RR, Webster RO, Hyers TM. Priming of human neutrophil functions by tumor necrosis factor. enhancement of superoxide anion generation, degranulation, and chemotaxis to chemoattractants C5a and F-Met-Leu-Phe. Inflammation 1992; 16: 24150.
  • 17
    Kownatzki E, Kapp A, Uhrich S. Modulation of human neutrophilic granulocyte functions by recombinant human tumor necrosis factor and recombinant human lymphotoxin. Promotion of adherence, inhibition of chemotactic migration and superoxide anion release from adherent cells. Clin Exp Immunol 1988; 74: 1438.
  • 18
    Grutkoski PS, D’Amico R, Ayala A, Simms HH. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes suppress migration and bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in a paracrine manner. Crit Care Med 2002; 30: 5917.
  • 19
    Underhill DM, Ozinsky A. Phagocytosis of microbes: complexity in action. Annu Rev Immunol 2002; 20: 82552.
  • 20
    Mayer-Scholl A, Averhoff P, Zychlisnky A. How do neutrophils and pathogens interact? Curr Opin Microbiol 2004; 7: 626.
  • 21
    Costerton JW, Stewart PS, Greenberg EP. Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science 1999; 284: 131826.
  • 22
    Sendo F, Tsuchida H, Takeda Y et al. Regulation of neutrophil apoptosis − its biological significance in inflammation and the immune response. Hum Cell 1996; 9: 21522.
  • 23
    Klebanoff SJ, Olszowksi S, Van Voorhis WC, Ledbetter JA, Walterdorph AM, Schlechte KG. Effects of gamma interferon on human neutrophils: protection from deterioration on storage. Blood 1992; 80: 22534.
  • 24
    Gosselin EJ, Wardwell K, Rigby WF, Guyre PM. Induction of MHC class II on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IFN-gamma, and IL-3. J Immunol 1993; 151: 148290.
  • 25
    Radsak M, Iking-Konert C, Stegmaier S, Andrassy K, Hänsch GM. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) as accessory cells for T-cell activation. MHC class II restricted antigen-dependent induction of T-cell proliferation. Immunology 2000; 101: 52130.
  • 26
    Iking-Konert C, Wagner C, Denefleh B et al. Up-regulation of the dendritic cell marker CD83 on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN): divergent expression in acute bacterial infections and chronic inflammatory disease. Clin Exp Immunol 2002; 130: 5018.
  • 27
    Yamashiro S, Wang JM, Gong WH, Yan D, Kamohora H, Yoshimura T. Expression of CCR6 and CD83 by cytokine-activated human neutrophils. Blood 2000; 96: 395863.
  • 28
    Hänsch GM, Radsak M, Wagner C et al. Expression of major histocompaibility antigens on polymorphonuclear neutrophils in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Kidney Int 1999; 55: 18118.
  • 29
    Wagner C, Kondella K, Bernschneider T, Heppert V, Wentzensen A, Hänsch GM. Post-traumatic osteomyelitis. analysis of inflammatory cells recruited into the site of infection. Shock 2003; 20: 50310.
  • 30
    Wagner C, Kaksa A, Müller W et al. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils in posttraumatic osteomyelitis: cells recovered from the inflamed site lack chemotactic activity, but generate superoxides. Shock 2004; 22: 10815.
  • 31
    Fleischer B. Superantigens. APMIS 1994; 102: 312.
  • 32
    Kraukauer T. Immune response to staphylococcal superantigens. Immunol Res 1999; 20: 163.
  • 33
    Van Panhuys N, Perret R, Prout M, Ronchese F, Le Gros G. Effector lymphoid tissue and its crucial role in protective immunity. Trends Immunol 2005; 26: 2427.
  • 34
    Wong P, Pamer EG. CD8 T cell responses to infectious pathogens. Annu Rev Immunol 2003; 21: 2970.
  • 35
    Yoon KS, Fitzgerald RH, Sud S, Song Z, Wooley PH. : Experimental acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in mice. II. Influence of Staphylococcus aureus infection on T-cell immunity. J Orthop Res 1999; 17: 38291.