• 1
    Mayer EA, Collins SM. Evolving pathophysiologic models of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 203248.
  • 2
    Mert HR. Irritable bowel syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 213646.
  • 3
    Camilleri M. Management of the irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 65268.
  • 4
    Spiller RC. Post infectious irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 166271.
  • 5
    Collins SM, Piche T, Rampal P. The putative role of inflammation in the irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 2001; 49: 7435.
  • 6
    Chadwick VS, Chen W, Shu D et al. Activation of the mucosal immune system in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 177883.
  • 7
    Vermillion, DL, Huizinga JD, Riddell RH et al. Altered small intestinal smooth muscle function in Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 1993; 104: 16929.
  • 8
    Snape WJ Jr, Williams R, Hyman PE. Defect in colonic smooth muscle contraction in patients with ulcerative colitis. Am J Physiol 1991; 261: G98791.
  • 9
    Di Lorenzo. Pseudo-obstruction: current approaches. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 9807.
  • 10
    Hirano I, Pandolfino J. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Dig Dis 2000; 18: 8392.
  • 11
    Alizadeh H, Castro GA, Weems WA. Intrinsic jejunal propulsion in the guinea-pig during parasitism with Trichinella spiralis. Gastroenterology 1987; 93: 78490.
  • 12
    Vermillion DL, Collins SM. Increased responsiveness of jejunal longitudinal muscle in Trichinella-infected rats. Am J Physiol 1988; 264: G124G129.
  • 13
    Vallance BA, Blennerhassett PA, Collins SM. Increased intestinal muscle contractility and worm expulsion in nematode infected mice. Am J Physiol 1997; 272: G321G327.
  • 14
    Blennerhasset MG, Vignjevic P, Vermillion DL et al. Inflammation causes hyperplasia and hypertrophy in smooth muscle of rat small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 1992; 262: G1041G1046.
  • 15
    Smith JW, Castro GA. Relation of peroxidase activity in gut mucosa to inflammation. Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 1978; 235: R72R79.
  • 16
    Marzio L, Blennerhasset PA, Chiverton S, Vermillion DL, Langer J, Collins SM. Altered smooth muscle function at worm free regions in Trichinella infected rats. Am J Physiol 1990; 259: G306G313.
  • 17
    Van Rooijen N, Sanders A. Liposomes mediated depletion of macrophages: mechanism of action, preparation of liposomes and applications. J Immunol Meth 1994; 174: 8393.
  • 18
    Galeazzi F, Haapala EM, Van Rooijen N et al. Inflammation-induced impairment of enteric nerve function in nematode-infected mice is macrophage dependent. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2000; 278: G259G265.
  • 19
    Van Kaer L. Regulation of immune responses by CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells. Immunol Res 2004; 30: 13953.
  • 20
    Mendiratta SK, Martin WD, Hong S et al. CD1d1 mutant mice are deficient in natural T cells that promptly produce IL-4. Immunity 1997; 6: 46977.
  • 21
    Khan WI, Blennerhassett PA, Motomura Y et al. The role of CD1d1 in host defence in intestinal nematode infection. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: A574 (Abstract).
  • 22
    Collins SM. The immunomodulation of enteric neuromuscular function: implications for motility and inflammatory disorders. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 16839.
  • 23
    Vallance BA, Croitoru K, Collins SM. T lymphocyte-dependent and – independent intestinal smooth muscle dysfunction in the T. spiralis-infected mouse. Am J Physiol 1998; 275: G115765.
  • 24
    Vallance BA, Galeazzi F, Collins SM, Snider DP. CD4 T cells and major histocompatibility complex class II expression influence worm expulsion and increased intestinal muscle contraction during Trichinella spiralis infection. Infection Immunity 1999; 67: 60907.
  • 25
    Mossman TR, Coffman RL. Th1 and Th2 cells: different patterns of lymphokine secretion lead to different functional properties. Annu Rev Immunol 1989; 7: 14573.
  • 26
    McKenzie GJ, Emson CL, Bell SE, Anderson S, Fallon PG, Zurawski G, Murray R, McKenzie ANJ. Impaired development of Th2 cells in IL-13 deficient mice. Immunity; 1998; 9: 42332.
  • 27
    Nelms K, Keegan AD, Zamorano J, Ryan JJ, Paul WE. The IL-4 receptor: signalling mechanisms and biological functions. Annu Rev Immunol 1999; 17: 70138.
  • 28
    Takeda K, Tanaka T, Shi W et al. Essential role of Stat6 in IL-4 signalling. Nature 1996; 380: 62730.
  • 29
    Khan WI, Vallance BA, Blennerhasset PA, Deng Y, Verdue EF, Matthaei KI, Collins SM. Critical role for signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 6 in mediating intestinal muscle hypercontractility and worm expulsion in Trichinella spiralis-infected mice. Infection and Immunity 2001; 69: 83844.
  • 30
    Akiho H, Blennerhasset PA, Deng Y, Verdue EF, Matthaei KI, Collins SM. Role of IL-4, IL-13, and STAT6 in inflammation-induced hypercontractility of murine smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2002; 282: G22632.
  • 31
    Zhao A, McDermott J, Urban JF Jr et al. Dependence of IL-4, IL-13, and nematode-induced alterations in murine small intestinal smooth muscle contractility on Stat6 and enteric nerves. J Immunol 2003; 171: 94854.
  • 32
    Khan WI, Richard M, Akiho H, Blennerhasset PA, Humphreys NE, Grencis RK, Van Snick J, Collins SM. Modulation of intestinal muscle contraction by interleukin-9 (IL-9) or IL-9 neutralization: correlation with worm expulsion in murine nematode infections. Infection Immunity 2003; 71: 24308.
  • 33
    Gately MK, Renzetti LM, Magram J et al. The interleukin-12/interleukin-12-receptor system: role in normal and pathologic immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol 1998; 16: 495521.
  • 34
    Khan WI, Blennerhasset PA, Deng Y, Gauldie J, Vallance BA, Collins SM. IL-12 gene transfer alters gut physiology and host immunity in nematode-infected mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2001; 281: G102G110.
  • 35
    Grewal IS, Flavell RA. A central role of CD40 ligand in the regulation of CD4+ T-cell responses. Immunol Today 1996; 17: 4104.
  • 36
    Van Kooten C, Banchereau J. CD40-CD ligand. J Leukoc Biol 2000; 67: 217.
  • 37
    Khan WI, Motomura Y, Blennerhassett PA et al. Disruption of CD40-CD40 ligand pathway inhibits the development of intestinal muscle hypercontractility and protective immunity in nematode infection. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2005; 288: G1522.
  • 38
    DeSchoolmeester ML, Little MC, Rollins BJ, Else KJ. Absence of CC chemokine ligand 2 results in an altered Th1/Th2 cytokine balance and failure to expel Trichuris muris infection. J Immunol 2003; 170: 469300.
  • 39
    Grossi L, McHugh K, Collins SM. On the specificity of altered muscle function in experimental colitis in rats. Gastroenterology 1993; 104: 104956.
  • 40
    Khan WI, Motomura Y, Verdu EF, Blennerhasset PA, El-Sharkawy RT, Verma-Gandhu M, Collins SM. Evidence that altered motility contributes in host defence in nematode infection. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: A226 (Abstract).
  • 41
    De Jonge WJ, Van Den Wijingard RF, The Fo ter Beek ML et al. Postoperative ileus is maintained by intestinal immune infiltrates that activate inhibitory neural pathways in mice. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 113747.
  • 42
    Bauer AJ, Boeckxstaens GE. Mechanisms of postoperative ileus. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2004; 16: 5460.
  • 43
    Mikkelsen HB, Mirsky R, Jessen KR, Thuneberg L. Macrophage-like cells in muscularis externa of mouse small intestine. immunohistochemical localization of F4/80, M1/70, and Ia–antigen. Cell Tissue Res 1988: 252: 301–6.
  • 44
    De Jonge WJ, Vander Zanden EP, The FO, Bijlsma MF et al. Stimulation of the vagus nerve attenuates macrophage activation by activating the Jak2-STAT3 signaling pathway. Nat Immunol 2005; 6: 84451.
  • 45
    Kalff JC, Schraunt WH, Billiar TR, Simmons RL, Bauer AJ. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in postoperative intestinal smooth muscle dysfunction in rodents. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 31627.
  • 46
    Hierholzer C, Kalff JC, Billiar TR, Bauer AJ, Tweardy DJ, Harbrecht BG. Induced nitric oxide promotes intestinal inflammation following hemorrhagic shock. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2004; 286: G22533.
  • 47
    Nakao A, Moore BA, Murase N, Liu F et al. Immunomodulatory effects of inhaled carbon monoxide on rat syngeneic small bowel graft motility. Gut 2003; 52: 127885.
  • 48
    Moreels TG, De Man JG, Dick JM, Niewendijk RJ et al. Effect of TNBS-induced morphological changes on pharmacological contractility of the rat ileum. Eur J Pharmacol 2001; 423: 21122.
  • 49
    Wells RW, Blennehassetss MG. Divergent changes to muscarinic and serotonergic signalling following colitis. Gut 2005; Jul 13 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 50
    Akimoto T, Numata F, Tamura M et al. Abrogation of bronchial eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 6-deficient mice. J Exp Med 1998; 187: 153742.
  • 51
    Ying  S, Humbert M, Barkans J et al. Expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA and protein product by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, eosinophils, and mast cells in bronchial biopsies obtained from atopic and nonatopic (intrinsic) asthmatics. J Immunol 1997; 158: 353944.
  • 52
    Barbara G, Vallance BA, Collins SM. Persistent intestinal neuromuscular dysfunction after acute nematode infection in mice. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 122432.
  • 53
    Barbara G, De Giorgio R, Deng Y et al. Role of immunological factors and cyclooxygenase 2 in persistent postinfective enteric muscle dysfuntion in mice. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 172936.
  • 54
    Akiho H, Deng Y, Blennehassett PA, Kanbayashi H, Collins SM. Mechanisms underlying the maintenance of muscle hypercontractility in a model of postinfective gut dysfunction. Gastroenterology 2005; 129: 13141.