• 1
    Hazenberg MD, Otto SA, Van Benthem BH et al. Persistent immune activation in HIV-1 infection is associated with progression to AIDS. AIDS 2003; 17: 18818.
  • 2
    Papagno L, Spina CA, Marchant A et al. Immune activation and CD8(+) T-cell differentiation towards senescence in HIV-1 infection. PLoS Biol 2004; 2: 17385.
  • 3
    Silvestri G, Feinberg MB. Turnover of lymphocytes and conceptual paradigms in HIV infection. J Clin Invest 2003; 112: 8214.
  • 4
    Trimble LA, Lieberman J. Circulating CD8 T lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals have impaired function and downregulate CD3 zeta, the signaling chain of the T-cell receptor complex. Blood 1998; 91: 58594.
  • 5
    Trimble LA, Shankar P, Patterson M, Daily JP, Lieberman J. Human immunodeficiency virus-specific circulating CD8 T lymphocytes have down-regulated CD3zeta and CD28, key signaling molecules for T-cell activation. J Virol 2000; 74: 732030.
  • 6
    David D, Bani L, Moreau JL et al. Regulatory dysfunction of the interleukin-2 receptor during HIV infection and the impact of triple combination therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998; 95: 1134853.
  • 7
    Kryworuchko M, Pasquier V, Keller H et al. Defective interleukin-2-dependent STAT5 signalling in CD8 T lymphocytes from HIV-positive patients: restoration by antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2004; 18: 4216.
  • 8
    Hamann D, Baars PA, Rep MH et al. Phenotypic and functional separation of memory and effector human CD8+ T cells. J Exp Med 1997; 186: 140718.
  • 9
    Sallusto F, Geginat J, Lanzavecchia A. Central memory and effector memory T cell subsets. function, generation, and maintenance. Annu Rev Immunol 2004; 22: 74563.
  • 10
    Schluns KS, Kieper WC, Jameson SC, Lefrancois L. IL-7 mediates the homeostasis of naive and memory CD8 T cells in vivo. Nat Immunol 2000; 1: 42632.
  • 11
    Okamoto Y, Douek DC, McFarland RD, Koup RA. Effects of exogenous interleukin-7 on human thymus function. Blood 2002; 99: 28518.
  • 12
    Fry TJ, Mackall CL. Interleukin-7: from bench to clinic. Blood 2002; 99: 3892904.
  • 13
    Kaech SM, Tan JT, Wherry EJ, Konieczny BT, Surh CD, Ahmed R. Selective expression of the interleukin 7 receptor identifies effector CD8 T cells that give rise to long-lived memory cells. Nat Immunol 2003; 4: 11918.
  • 14
    Park JH, Yu Q, Erman B et al. Suppression of IL7Ralpha transcription by IL-7 and other prosurvival cytokines: a novel mechanism for maximizing IL-7-dependent T cell survival. Immunity 2004; 21: 289302.
  • 15
    Beq S, Delfraissy JF, Theze J. Interleukin-7 (IL-7): immune function, involvement in the pathogenesis of HIV infection and therapeutic potential. Eur Cytokine Netw 2004; 15: 27989.
  • 16
    Napolitano LA, Grant RM, Deeks SG et al. Increased production of IL-7 accompanies HIV-1-mediated T-cell depletion: implications for T-cell homeostasis. Nat Med 2001; 7: 739.
  • 17
    Beq S, Fontanet A, Theze J, Colle JH. IL-7 and Flt-3L plasma levels are increased during highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated IL-2 therapy. AIDS 2004; 18: 208991.
  • 18
    Beq S, Rannou MT, Fontanet A, Delfraissy JF, Theze J, Colle JH. HIV infection: pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy IL-7 plasma levels correlate with long-term CD4 cell count increase after treatment. AIDS 2004; 18: 5635.
  • 19
    Carini C, McLane MF, Mayer KH, Essex M. Dysregulation of interleukin-7 receptor may generate loss of cytotoxic T cell response in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Eur J Immunol 1994; 24: 292784.
  • 20
    Vingerhoets J, Bisalinkumi E, Penne G et al. Altered receptor expression and decreased sensitivity of T-cells to the stimulatory cytokines IL-2, IL-7 and IL-12 in HIV infection. Immunol Lett 1998; 61: 5361.
  • 21
    MacPherson PA, Fex C, Sanchez-Dardon J, Hawley-Foss N, Angel JB. Interleukin-7 receptor expression on CD8(+) T cells is reduced in HIV infection and partially restored with effective antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001; 28: 4547.
  • 22
    Mussini C, Pinti M, Borghi V et al. Features of ‘CD4-exploders’, HIV-positive patients with an optimal immune reconstitution after potent antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2002; 16: 160916.
  • 23
    Paiardini M, Cervasi B, Albrecht H et al. Loss of CD127 expression defines an expansion of effector CD8+ T Cells in HIV-infected individuals. J Immunol 2005; 174: 29009.
  • 24
    Boutboul FPD, Appay V, Pellé O et al. Regulation of interleukin-7 receptor expression characterizes differentiation of CD8 T cells specific for HIV, EBV and CMV. AIDS 2005: 19816.
  • 25
    Hazenberg MD, Stuart JW, Otto SA et al. T-cell division in HIV-1 infection is mainly due to immune activation: a longitudinal analysis in patients before and during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Blood 2000; 95: 24955.
  • 26
    Silvestri G, Sodora DL, Koup RA et al. Nonpathogenic SIV infection of sooty mangabeys is characterized by limited bystander immunopathology despite chronic high-level viremia. Immunity 2003; 18: 44152.
  • 27
    Champagne P, Ogg GS, King AS et al. Skewed maturation of memory HIV-specific CD8 T lymphocytes. Nature 2001; 410: 10611.
  • 28
    Appay V, Dunbar PR, Callan M et al. Memory CD8+ T cells vary in differentiation phenotype in different persistent virus infections. Nat Med 2002; 8: 37985.