Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL). If untreated the disease could be fatal; however, in some cases the infection can run a subclinical course. In subclinical infections a Th1-response predominates, while Th2-responses and/or probably Treg cells are related to unfavourable outcome of the disease in active VL. In the present study we determined the levels of soluble (s) CD26 and CD30 co-stimulatory molecules in sera from patients with active VL, asymptomatic individuals and healthy volunteers. Results showed a significant difference in both sCD26 and sCD30 between infected cases and normal individuals (P ≤ 0·001). However, there was no significant difference in sCD26 levels between asymptomatic cases and patients, although the difference was not significant. sCD30 levels were significantly higher in VL patients than asymptomatic cases (P ≤ 0·001). These findings suggest a possible association between sCD26 and sCD30 levels and the clinical manifestation of L. infantum infection.