• 1
    Lowes MA, Bishop GA, Crotty K, Barnetson RS, Halliday GM. T helper 1 cytokine mRNA is increased in spontaneously regressing primary melanomas. J Invest Dermatol 1997; 108:91419.
  • 2
    Van BP, Zhang Y, Chaux P et al. Tumor-specific shared antigenic peptides recognized by human T cells. Immunol Rev 2002; 188:5164.
  • 3
    Bodurtha AJ, Berkelhammer J, Kim YH, Laucius JF, Mastrangelo MJ. A clinical histologic, and immunologic study of a case of metastatic malignant melanoma undergoing spontaneous remission. Cancer 1976; 37:73542.
  • 4
    Day CL Jr, Lew RA, Mihm MC Jr et al. A multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for melanoma patients with lesions greater than or equal to 3.65 mm in thickness. The importance of revealing alternative Cox models. Ann Surg 1982; 195:449.
  • 5
    Boon T, Coulie PG, Eynde BJ, Bruggen PV. Human T cell responses against melanoma. Annu Rev Immunol 2006; 24:175208.
  • 6
    Voit C, Kron M, Schwurzer-Voit M, Sterry W. Intradermal injection of Newcastle disease virus-modified autologous melanoma cell lysate and interleukin-2 for adjuvant treatment of melanoma patients with resectable stage III disease. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2003; 1:1205.
  • 7
    Lindenmann J, Klein PA. Viral oncolysis: increased immunogenicity of host cell antigen associated with influenza virus. J Exp Med 1967; 126:93108.
  • 8
    Kim EM, Sivanandham M, Stavropoulos CI, Bartolucci AA, Wallack MK. Overview analysis of adjuvant therapies for melanoma − a special reference to results from vaccinia melanoma oncolysate adjuvant therapy trials. Surg Oncol 2001; 10:539.
  • 9
    Hersey P, Coates AS, McCarthy WH et al. Adjuvant immunotherapy of patients with high-risk melanoma using vaccinia viral lysates of melanoma: results of a randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20:418190.
  • 10
    Roenigk HH Jr, Deodhar S, St Jacques R, Burdick K. Immunotherapy of malignant melanoma with vaccinia virus. Arch Dermatol 1974; 109:66873.
  • 11
    Mastrangelo MJ, Lattime EC. Virotherapy clinical trials for regional disease: in situ immune modulation using recombinant poxvirus vectors. Cancer Gene Ther 2002; 9:101321.
  • 12
    Meyer RG, Britten CM, Siepmann U et al. A phase I vaccination study with tyrosinase in patients with stage II melanoma using recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA-hTyr). Cancer Immunol Immunother 2005; 54:45367.
  • 13
    Oertli D, Marti WR, Zajac P et al. Rapid induction of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes against melanoma-associated antigens by a recombinant vaccinia virus vector expressing multiple immunodominant epitopes and co-stimulatory molecules in vivo. Hum Gene Ther 2002; 13:56975.
  • 14
    Jenne L, Schuler G, Steinkasserer A. Viral vectors for dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. Trends Immunol 2001; 22:1027.
  • 15
    Humrich J, Jenne L. Viral vectors for dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2003; 276:24159.
  • 16
    Jenne L, Hauser C, Arrighi JF, Saurat JH, Hugin AW. Poxvirus as a vector to transduce human dendritic cells for immunotherapy: abortive infection but reduced APC function. Gene Ther 2000; 7:157583.
  • 17
    Drexler I, Antunes E, Schmitz M et al. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara for delivery of human tyrosinase as melanoma-associated antigen: induction of tyrosinase- and melanoma-specific human leukocyte antigen A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res 1999; 59:495563.
  • 18
    Jenne L, Arrighi JF, Jonuleit H, Saurat JH, Hauser C. Dendritic cells containing apoptotic melanoma cells prime human CD8+ T cells for efficient tumor cell lysis. Cancer Res 2000; 60:444652.
  • 19
    Larsson M, Fonteneau JF, Bhardwaj N. Dendritic cells resurrect antigens from dead cells. Trends Immunol 2001; 22:1418.
  • 20
    Sutter G, Moss B. Nonreplicating vaccinia vector efficiently expresses recombinant genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992; 89:1084751.
  • 21
    Tuting T, Wilson CC, Martin DM et al. Autologous human monocyte-derived dendritic cells genetically modified to express melanoma antigens elicit primary cytotoxic T cell responses in vitro: enhancement by cotransfection of genes encoding the Th1- biasing cytokines IL-12 and IFN-alpha. J Immunol 1998; 160:113947.
  • 22
    Jonuleit H, Kuhn U, Muller G et al. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins induce maturation of potent immunostimulatory dendritic cells under fetal calf serum-free conditions. Eur J Immunol 1997; 27:313542.
  • 23
    Schuler-Thurner B, Schultz ES, Berger TG et al. Rapid induction of tumor-specific type 1 T helper cells in metastatic melanoma patients by vaccination with mature, cryopreserved, peptide-loaded monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J Exp Med 2002; 195:127988.
  • 24
    Valmori D, Fonteneau JF, Lizana CM et al. Enhanced generation of specific tumor-reactive CTL in vitro by selected Melan-A/MART-1 immunodominant peptide analogues. J Immunol 1998; 160:17508.
  • 25
    Ploubidou A, Way M. Viral transport and the cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2001; 13:97105.
  • 26
    Antoine G, Scheiflinger F, Dorner F, Falkner FG. The complete genomic sequence of the modified vaccinia Ankara strain: comparison with other orthopoxviruses. Virology 1998; 244:36596.
  • 27
    Thumann P, Moc I, Humrich J et al. Antigen loading of dendritic cells with whole tumor cell preparations. J Immunol Meth 2003; 277:116.
  • 28
    Webb HE, Smith CE. Viruses in the treatment of cancer. Lancet 1970; 1:12068.
  • 29
    Ries SJ. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying tumor-selective replication of the oncolytic adenovirus mutant ONYX-015. Fut Oncol 2005; 1:7636.
  • 30
    Aghi M, Martuza RL. Oncolytic viral therapies − the clinical experience. Oncogene 2005; 24:780216.
  • 31
    Pfahlberg A, Kolmel KF, Grange JM et al. Inverse association between melanoma and previous vaccinations against tuberculosis and smallpox: results of the FEBIM study. J Invest Dermatol 2002; 119:5705.
  • 32
    Donahue JM, Mullen JT, Tanabe KK. Viral oncolysis. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2002; 11:66180.
  • 33
    Thorne SH, Kirn DH. Future directions for the field of oncolytic virotherapy: a perspective on the use of vaccinia virus. Exp Opin Biol Ther 2004; 4:130721.
  • 34
    Eder JP, Kantoff PW, Roper K et al. A phase I trial of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing prostate-specific antigen in advanced prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6:16328.
  • 35
    Horig H, Lee DS, Conkright W et al. Phase I clinical trial of a recombinant canarypoxvirus (ALVAC) vaccine expressing human carcinoembryonic antigen and the B7.1 co-stimulatory molecule. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2000; 49:50414.
  • 36
    Von Mehren M, Arlen P, Tsang KY et al. Pilot study of a dual gene recombinant avipox vaccine containing both carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and B7.1 transgenes in patients with recurrent CEA-expressing adenocarcinomas. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6:221928.
  • 37
    Yang S, Kittlesen D, Slingluff CL Jr, Vervaert CE, Seigler HF, Darrow TL. Dendritic cells infected with a vaccinia vector carrying the human gp100 gene simultaneously present multiple specificities and elicit high-affinity T cells reactive to multiple epitopes and restricted by HLA-A2 and -A3. J Immunol 2000; 164:420411.
  • 38
    Woodring PJ, Hunter T, Wang JY. Regulation of F-actin-dependent processes by the Abl family of tyrosine kinases. J Cell Sci 2003; 116:261326.
  • 39
    Friedl P, Wolf K. Proteolytic and non-proteolytic migration of tumour cells and leucocytes. Biochem Soc Symp 2003, 27785.
  • 40
    Friedl P, Wolf K. Tumour-cell invasion and migration: diversity and escape mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer 2003; 3:36274.
  • 41
    Banchereau J, Schuler-Thurner B, Palucka AK, Schuler G. Dendritic cells as vectors for therapy. Cell 2001; 106:2714.
  • 42
    Berard F, Blanco P, Davoust J et al. Cross-priming of naive CD8 T cells against melanoma antigens using dendritic cells loaded with killed allogeneic melanoma cells. J Exp Med 2000; 192:153544.