• 1
    Lamm DL, Thor DE, Harris SC, Reyna JA, Stogdill VD, Radwin HM. Bacillus Calmette–Guérin immunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer. J Urol 1980; 124:3840.
  • 2
    O'Donnell MA, DeWolf DC. Bacillus Calmette–Guérin immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer. New prospects for an old warhorse. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 1995; 4:189202.
  • 3
    Emoto M, Emoto Y, Buchwalow IB, Kaufmann SH. Induction of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ natural killer T cells by Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin. Eur J Immunol 1999; 29:6509.
  • 4
    Pryor K, Goddard J, Goldstein D et al. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) enhances monocyte- and lymphocyte-mediated bladder tumour cell killing. Br J Cancer 1995; 71:8017.
  • 5
    Bohle A, Gerdes J, Ulmer AJ, Hofstetter AG, Flad HD. Effects of local bacillus Calmette–Guérin therapy in patients with bladder carcinoma on immunocompetent cells of the bladder wall. J Urol 1990; 144:538.
  • 6
    Prescott S, James K, Hargreave TB, Chisholm GD, Smyth JF. Intravesical Evans strain BCG therapy: quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of the immune response within the bladder wall. J Urol 1992; 147:163642.
  • 7
    Peuchmaur M, Benoit G, Vieillefond A et al. Analysis of mucosal bladder leucocyte subpopulations in patients treated with intravesical Bacillus Calmette–Guérin. Urol Res 1989; 17:299303.
  • 8
    Saint F, Patard JJ, Groux Muscatelli B, Lefrere Belda MA et al. Evaluation of cellular tumour rejection mechanisms in the peritumoral bladder wall after bacillus Calmette–Guérin treatment. Br J Urol 2001; 88:60210.
  • 9
    De Boer EC, De Jong WH, Van Der Meijden AP et al. Presence of activated lymphocytes in the urine of patients with superficial bladder cancer after intravesical immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette–Guérin. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1991; 33:4116.
  • 10
    De Boer EC, De Jong WH, Van Der Meijden AP et al. Leukocytes in the urine after intravesical BCG treatment for superficial bladder cancer. A flow cytofluorometric analysis. Urol Res 1991; 19:4550.
  • 11
    De Boer EC, De Jong WH, Steerenberg PA et al. Leukocytes and cytokines in the urine of superficial bladder cancer patients after intravesical immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette–Guérin. In Vivo 1991; 5:6717.
  • 12
    Bohle A, Nowc C, Ulmer AJ et al. Elevations of cytokines interleukin-1, interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor in the urine of patients after intravesical bacillus Calmette–Guérin immunotherapy. J Urol 1990; 144:5964.
  • 13
    Thalmann GN, Sermier A, Rentsch C, Mohrle K, Cecchini MG, Studer UE. Urinary interleukin-8 and 18 predict the response of superficial bladder cancer to intravesical therapy with bacillus Calmette–Guérin. J Urol 2000; 164:212933.
  • 14
    De Reijke TM, De Boer EC, Kurth KH, Schamhart DH. Urinary cytokines during intravesical bacillus Calmette–Guérin therapy for superficial bladder cancer: processing, stability and prognostic value. J Urol 1996; 155:47782.
  • 15
    Saint F, Patard JJ, Maille P et al. Prognostic value of a T helper 1 urinary cytokine response after intravesical bacillus Calmette–Guérin treatment for superficial bladder cancer. J Urol 2002; 167:3647.
  • 16
    Luo Y, Chen X, O'Donnell MA. Role of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in BCG-induced IFN-gamma production: cytokine promotion and simulation of BCG effect. Cytokine 2003; 21:1726.
  • 17
    Wang J, Wakeham J, Harkness R, Xing Z. Macrophages are a significant source of type 1 cytokines during mycobacterial infection. J Clin Invest 1999; 103:10239.
  • 18
    Matsumoto H, Suzuki K, Tsuyuguchi K et al. Interleukin-12 gene expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. cytokine regulation and effect of NK cells. Infect Immun 1997; 65:440510.
  • 19
    Calorini L, Bianchini F, Mannini A et al. IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha account for a pro-clonogenic activity secreted by activated murine peritoneal macrophages. Clin Exp Metastasis 2002; 19:259642.
  • 20
    Atkinson S, Valadas E, Smith SM, Lukey PT, Dockrell HM. Monocyte-derived macrophage cytokine responses induced by M. bovis BCG. Tuber Lung Dis 2000; 80:197207.
  • 21
    De Reijke TM, De Boer EC, Kurth KH, Schamhart DH. Urinary interleukin-2 monitoring during prolonged bacillus Calmette–Guérin treatment. can it predict the optimal number of instillations? J Urol 1999; 161:6771.
  • 22
    Hamerman JA, Aderem A. Functional transitions in macrophages during in vivo infection with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin. J Immunol 2001; 167:222733.
  • 23
    Aldwell FE, Wedlock DN, Slobbe LJ, Griffin JF, Buddle BM, Buchan GS. In vitro control of Mycobacterium bovis by macrophages. Tuberculosis 2001; 81:11523.
  • 24
    Luo Y, Yamada H, Chen X et al. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) expressing mouse IL-18 augments Th1 immunity and macrophage cytotoxicity. Clin Exp Immunol 2004; 137:2434.
  • 25
    Yamada H, Kuroda E, Matsumoto S, Matsumoto T, Yamada T, Yamashita U. Prostaglandin E2 down-regulates viable Bacille Calmette–Guérin-induced macrophage cytotoxicity against murine bladder cancer cell MBT-2 in vitro. Clin Exp Immunol 2002; 128:528.
  • 26
    Yamada H, Matsumoto S, Matsumoto T, Yamada T, Yamashita U. Enhancing effect of an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis on bacillus Calmette–Guérin-induced macrophage cytotoxicity against murine bladder cancer cell line MBT-2 in vitro. Jpn J Cancer Res 2000; 91:53442.
  • 27
    Mickey DD, Mickey GH, Murphy WM, Niell HB, Soloway MS. In vitro characterization of four N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl] formamide (FANFT) induced mouse bladder tumors. J Urol 1982; 127:12337.
  • 28
    O'Donnell MA, Aldovini A, Duda RB et al. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG secreting functional interleukin-2 enhances gamma interferon production by splenocytes. Infect Immun 1994; 62:250814.
  • 29
    Aderem A, Underhill DM. Mechanisms of phagocytosis in macrophages. Annu Rev Immunol 1999; 17:593623.
  • 30
    O'Donnell MA, Luo Y, Hunter SE, Chen X, Hayes LL, Clinton SK. The essential role of interferon-gamma during interleukin-12 therapy for murine transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol 2004; 171:133642.
  • 31
    Hawkyard SJ, Jackson AM, Prescott S, James K, Chisholm GD. The effect of recombinant cytokines on bladder cancer cells in vitro. J Urol 1993; 150:5148.
  • 32
    Hawkyard S, James K, Prescott S et al. The effects of recombinant human interferon-gamma on a panel of human bladder cancer cell lines. J Urol 1991; 145:107881.
  • 33
    Zhou A, Chen Z, Rummage JA et al. Exogenous interferon-gamma induces endogenous synthesis of interferon-alpha and -beta by murine macrophages for induction of nitric oxide synthase. J Interferon Cytokine Res 1995; 15:897904.
  • 34
    Petricevich VL, Alves RC. Role of cytokines and nitric oxide in the induction of tuberculostatic macrophage functions. Med Inflamm 2000; 9:2619.
  • 35
    Ladel CH, Blum C, Dreher A, Reifenberg K, Kopf M, Kaufmann SH. Lethal tuberculosis in interleukin-6-deficient mutant mice. Infect Immun 1997; 65:48439.
  • 36
    Kindler V, Sappino AP, Grau GE, Piguet PF, Vassalli P. The inducing role of tumor necrosis factor in the development of bactericidal granulomas during BCG infection. Cell 1989; 56:73140.
  • 37
    Ahn HJ, Maruo S, Tomura M et al. A mechanism underlying synergy between IL-12 and IFN-gamma-inducing factor in enhanced production of IFN-gamma. J Immunol 1997; 159:212531.
  • 38
    Kohno K, Kataoka J, Ohtsuki T et al. IFN-gamma-inducing factor (IGIF) is a costimulatory factor on the activation of Th1 but not Th2 cells and exerts its effect independently of IL-12. J Immunol 1997; 158:154150.
  • 39
    Luo Y, Chen X, Szilvasi A, O'Donnell MA. Co-expression of interleukin-2 and green fluorescent protein reporter in mycobacteria: in vivo application for monitoring antimycobacterial immunity. Mol Immunol 2000; 37:52736.