• 1
    Brattig NW. Pathogenesis and host responses in human onchocerciasis: impact of Onchocerca filariae and Wolbachia endobacteria. Microbes Infect 2004; 6:11328.
  • 2
    Remme J, De Sole G, Van Oortmarssen GJ. The predicted and observed decline in onchocerciasis infection during 14 years of successful control of Simulium spp. in West Africa. Bull WHO 1990; 68:3319.
  • 3
    De Sole G, Accorsi S, Cresveaux H, Remme J, Walsh F, Hendrickx J. Distribution and severity of onchocerciasis in southern Benin, Ghana and Togo. Acta Trop 1992; 52:8797.
  • 4
    Hougard JM, Yameogo L, Seketeli A, Boatin B, Dadzie KY. Twenty-two years of blackfly control in the onchocerciasis control programme in West Africa. Parasitol Today 1997; 13:42531.
  • 5
    De Sole G, Remme J. Onchocerciasis infection in children born during 14 years of Simulium control in West Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1991; 85:38590.
  • 6
    Richards FO, Miri E, Meredith S et al. Onchocerciasis Bull WHO 1998; 76 (Suppl. 2):1479.
  • 7
    Seketeli A, Adeoye G, Eyamba A et al. The achievements and challenges of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC). Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2002; 96 (Suppl. 1):1528.
  • 8
    Duke BO. Onchocerciasis (river blindness) – can it be eradicated? Parasitol Today 1990; 6:824.
  • 9
    Richards F, Hopkins D, Cupp E. Programmatic goals and approaches to onchocerciasis. Lancet 2000; 355:16634.
  • 10
    Hopkins DR, Richards FO, Katabarwa M. Whither onchocerciasis control in Africa? Am J Trop Med Hyg 2005; 72:12.
  • 11
    Brieger WR, Awedoba AK, Eneanya CI et al. The effects of ivermectin on onchocercal skin disease and severe itching: results of a multicentre trial. Trop Med Int Health 1998; 3:95161.
  • 12
    Abiose A. Onchocercal eye disease and the impact of Mectizan treatment. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1998; 92:1122.
  • 13
    Borsboom GJ, Boatin BA, Nagelkerke NJ et al. Impact of ivermectin on onchocerciasis transmission: assessing the empirical evidence that repeated ivermectin mass treatments may lead to elimination/eradication in West Africa. Filaria J 2003; 2:125.
  • 14
    Dadzie Y, Neira M, Hopkins D. Final report of the Conference on the eradicability of onchocerciasis. Filaria J 2003; 2:2.
  • 15
    Winnen M, Plaisier AP, Alley ES et al. Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa? Bull WHO 2002; 80:38491.
  • 16
    Awadzi K, Dadzie KY, Schulz-Key H, Gilles HM, Fulford AJ, Aziz MA. The chemotherapy of onchocerciasis. XI. A double-blind comparative study of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine and placebo in human onchocerciasis in northern Ghana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1986; 80:43342.
  • 17
    Steel C, Lujan-Trangay A, Gonzalez-Peralta C, Zea-Flores G, Nutman TB. Immunologic responses to repeated ivermectin treatment in patients with onchocerciasis. J Infect Dis 1991; 164:5817.
  • 18
    Schulz-Key H, Soboslay PT, Hoffmann WH. Ivermectin-facilitated immunity. Parasitol Today 1992; 8:1523.
  • 19
    Soboslay PT, Dreweck CM, Hoffmann WH et al. Ivermectin-facilitated immunity in onchocerciasis. Reversal of lymphocytopenia, cellular anergy and deficient cytokine production after single treatment. Clin Exp Immunol 1992; 89:40713.
  • 20
    Elson LH, Calvopina M, Paredes W et al. Immunity to onchocerciasis: putative immune persons produce a Th1-like response to Onchocerca volvulus. J Infect Dis 1995; 171:6528.
  • 21
    Doetze A, Erttmann KD, Gallin MY, Fleischer B, Hoerauf A. Production of both IFN-gamma and IL-5 by Onchocerca volvulus S1 antigen-specific CD4+ T cells from putatively immune individuals. Int Immunol 1997; 9:7219.
  • 22
    Turaga PS, Tierney TJ, Bennett KE et al. Immunity to onchocerciasis: cells from putatively immune individuals produce enhanced levels of interleukin-5, gamma interferon, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in response to Onchocerca volvulus larval and male worm antigens. Infect Immun 2000; 68:190511.
  • 23
    Molyneux DH, Davies JB. Onchocerciasis control: moving towards the millennium. Parasitol Today 1997; 13:41825.
  • 24
    Njongmeta LM, Nfon CK, Gilbert J, Makepeace BL, Tanya VN, Trees AJ. Cattle protected from onchocerciasis by ivermectin are highly susceptible to infection after drug withdrawal. Int J Parasitol 2004; 9:106974.
  • 25
    Tchakoute VL, Graham SP, Jensen SA et al. In a bovine model of onchocerciasis, protective immunity exists naturally, is absent in drug-cured hosts, and is induced by vaccination. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103:59716.
  • 26
    Schulz-Key H, Albrecht W, Heuschkel C, Soboslay PT, Banla M, Görgen H. Efficacy of ivermectin in the treatment of concomitant Mansonella perstans infections in onchocerciasis patients. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1993; 87:2279.
  • 27
    Soboslay PT, Geiger S, Weiss N et al. The diverse expression of immunity in humans at distinct states of Onchocerca volvulus infection. Immunology 1997; 90:5929.
  • 28
    Soboslay PT, Luder CG, Hoffmann WH et al. Ivermectin-facilitated immunity in onchocerciasis; activation of parasite-specific Th1-type responses with subclinical Onchocerca volvulus infection. Clin Exp Immunol 1994; 96:23844.
  • 29
    Katz N, Chaves A, Pellegrino J. A simple device for quantitative stool thick-smear technique in Schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 1972; 14:397400.
  • 30
    Soboslay PT, Hamm DM, Pfafflin F, Fendt J, Banla M, Schulz-Key H. Cytokine and chemokine responses in patients co-infected with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Necator americanus and Mansonella perstans and changes after anti-parasite treatment. Microbes Infect 2006; 8:23847.
  • 31
    Schulz-Key H, Albiez EJ, Büttner DW. Isolation of living adult Onchocerca volvulus from nodules. Tropenmed Parasitol 1977; 28:42830.
  • 32
    Greene BM, Fanning MM, Ellner JJ. Non-specific suppression of antigen-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis in Onchocerca volvulus infection in man. Clin Exp Immunol 1983; 52:25965.
  • 33
    Steel C, Lujan-Trangay A, Gonzalez-Peralta C, Zea-Flores G, Nutman TB. Transient changes in cytokine profiles following ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis. J Infect Dis 1994; 170:96270.
  • 34
    Ali MM, Baraka OZ, AbdeI, Rahman SI et al. Immune responses directed against microfilariae correlate with severity of clinical onchodermatitis and treatment history. J Infect Dis 2003; 187:7147.
  • 35
    Cooper PJ, Awadzi K, Ottesen EA, Remick D, Nutman TB. Eosinophil sequestration and activation are associated with the onset and severity of systemic adverse reactions following the treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin. J Infect Dis 1999; 179:73842.
  • 36
    Cooper PJ, Beck LA, Espinel I et al. Eotaxin and RANTES expression by the dermal endothelium is associated with eosinophil infiltration after ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis. Clin Immunol 2000; 95:5161.
  • 37
    Fendt J, Hamm DM, Banla M et al. Chemokines in onchocerciasis patients after a single dose of ivermectin. Clin Exp Immunol 2005; 142:31826.
  • 38
    Karam M, Schulz-Key H, Remme JHF. Population dynamics of Onchocerca volvulus after 7–8 years of vector control in West Africa. Acta Trop 1987; 44:44557.
  • 39
    Plaisier AP, Alley ES, Van Oortmarssen GJ, Boatin BA, Habbema JD. Required duration of combined annual ivermectin treatment and vector control in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in west Africa. Bull WHO 1997; 75:23745.
  • 40
    Molento MB, Wang GT, Prichard RK. Decreased ivermectin and moxidectin sensitivity in Haemonchus contortus selected with moxidectin over 14 generations. Vet Parasitol 1999; 86:7781.
  • 41
    Vickers M, Venning M, McKenna PB, Mariadass B. Resistance to macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics by Haemonchus contortus and Ostertagia circumcincta in sheep in New Zealand. NZ Vet J 2001; 49:1015.
  • 42
    Awadzi K, Attah SK, Addy ET et al. Thirty-month follow-up of sub-optimal responders to multiple treatments with ivermectin, in two onchocerciasis-endemic foci in Ghana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2004; 98:35970.
  • 43
    Awadzi K, Boakye DA, Edwards G et al. An investigation of persistent microfilaridermias despite multiple treatments with ivermectin, in two onchocerciasis-endemic foci in Ghana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2004; 98:23149.
  • 44
    Hoerauf A, Mand S, Adjei O, Fleischer B, Buttner DW. Depletion of wolbachia endobacteria in Onchocerca volvulus by doxycycline and microfilaridermia after ivermectin treatment. Lancet 2001; 357:14156.
  • 45
    Debrah AY, Mand S, Marfo-Debrekyei Y, Larbi J, Adjei O, Hoerauf A. Assessment of microfilarial loads in the skin of onchocerciasis patients after treatment with different regimens of doxycycline plus ivermectin. Filaria J 2006; 5:1.
  • 46
    Molyneux DH, Nantulya V. Public-private partnerships in blindness prevention: reaching beyond the eye. Eye 2005; 19:10506.