• 1
    Ou SH, Zell JA, Ziogas A, Anton-Culver H. Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the United States: improved survival of Chinese patients within the keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma histology. Ann Oncol 2007; 18:2935.
  • 2
    Shanmugaratnam K, Chan SH, De-The G et al. Histopathology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma correlations with epidemiology, survival rates and other biological characteristics. Cancer 1979; 44:102944.
  • 3
    Agulnik M, Siu LL. State-of-the-art management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: current and future directions. Br J Cancer 2005; 92:799806.
  • 4
    Wang J, Li J, Hong X et al. Retrospective case series of gemcitabine plus cisplatin in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Oral Oncol 2008; 44:46470.
  • 5
    Masmoudi A, Toumi N, Khanfir A et al. Epstein–Barr virus-targeted immunotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rev 2007; 33:499505.
  • 6
    Baniyash M. TCR zeta-chain downregulation: curtailing an excessive inflammatory immune response. Nat Rev Immunol 2004; 4:67587.
  • 7
    Whiteside TL. Down-regulation of zeta-chain expression in T cells: a biomarker of prognosis in cancer? Cancer Immunol Immunother 2004; 53:86578.
  • 8
    Fontenot JD, Gavin MA, Rudensky AY. Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Nat Immunol 2003; 4:3306.
  • 9
    Piccirillo CA, Shevach EM. Cutting edge: control of CD8+ T cell activation by CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory cells. J Immunol 2001; 167:113740.
  • 10
    Pillai V, Ortega SB, Wang CK, Karandikar NJ. Transient regulatory T-cells: a state attained by all activated human T-cells. Clin Immunol 2007; 123:1829.
  • 11
    Walker MR, Kasprowicz DJ, Gersuk VH et al. Induction of FoxP3 and acquisition of T regulatory activity by stimulated human CD4+CD25– T cells. J Clin Invest 2003; 112:143743.
  • 12
    Wang J, Ioan-Facsinay A, Van Der Voort EI, Huizinga TW, Toes RE. Transient expression of FOXP3 in human activated nonregulatory CD4+ T cells. Eur J Immunol 2007; 37:12938.
  • 13
    Tran DQ, Ramsey H, Shevach EM. Induction of FOXP3 expression in naive human CD4+FOXP3 T cells by T-cell receptor stimulation is transforming growth factor-beta dependent but does not confer a regulatory phenotype. Blood 2007; 110:298390.
  • 14
    Allan SE, Crome SQ, Crellin NK et al. Activation-induced FOXP3 in human T effector cells does not suppress proliferation or cytokine production. Int Immunol 2007; 19:34554.
  • 15
    Lau KM, Cheng SH, Lo KW et al. Increase in circulating Foxp3+CD4+CD25(high) regulatory T cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Br J Cancer 2007; 96:61722.
  • 16
    Fontenot JD, Rasmussen JP, Williams LM, Dooley JL, Farr AG, Rudensky AY. Regulatory T cell lineage specification by the forkhead transcription factor foxp3. Immunity 2005; 22:32941.
  • 17
    Tang KF, Chan SH, Loh KS et al. Increased production of interferon-gamma by tumour infiltrating T lymphocytes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: indicative of an activated status. Cancer Lett 1999; 140:938.
  • 18
    Tang KF, Tan SY, Chan SH et al. A distinct expression of CC chemokines by macrophages in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: implication for the intense tumor infiltration by T lymphocytes and macrophages. Hum Pathol 2001; 32:429.
  • 19
    Liu W, Han HX. Expression of CD25+ lymphocytes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its association with EBV infection. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2006; 26:947.
  • 20
    Sato E, Olson SH, Ahn J et al. Intraepithelial CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and a high CD8+/regulatory T cell ratio are associated with favorable prognosis in ovarian cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102:1853843.
  • 21
    Mourmouras V, Fimiani M, Rubegni P et al. Evaluation of tumour-infiltrating CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in human cutaneous benign and atypical naevi, melanomas and melanoma metastases. Br J Dermatol 2007; 157:5319.
  • 22
    Roncador G, Brown PJ, Maestre L et al. Analysis of FOXP3 protein expression in human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells at the single-cell level. Eur J Immunol 2005; 35:168191.
  • 23
    Liu W, Putnam AL, Xu-Yu Z et al. CD127 expression inversely correlates with FoxP3 and suppressive function of human CD4+ T reg cells. J Exp Med 2006; 203:170111.
  • 24
    Zelenay S, Lopes-Carvalho T, Caramalho I, Moraes-Fontes MF, Rebelo M, Demengeot J. Foxp3+ CD25− CD4 T cells constitute a reservoir of committed regulatory cells that regain CD25 expression upon homeostatic expansion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102:40916.
  • 25
    Gao Q, Qiu SJ, Fan J et al. Intratumoral balance of regulatory and cytotoxic T cells is associated with prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma after resection. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25:258693.
  • 26
    Fu J, Xu D, Liu Z et al. Increased regulatory T cells correlate with CD8 T-cell impairment and poor survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Gastroenterology 2007; 132:232839.
  • 27
    Siddiqui SA, Frigola X, Bonne-Annee S et al. Tumor-infiltrating Foxp3–CD4+CD25+ T cells predict poor survival in renal cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13:207581.
  • 28
    Oudejans JJ, Harijadi H, Kummer JA et al. High numbers of granzyme B/CD8-positive tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies predict rapid fatal outcome in patients treated with curative intent. J Pathol 2002; 198:46875.
  • 29
    Ito R, Kitadai Y, Kyo E et al. Interleukin 1 alpha acts as an autocrine growth stimulator for human gastric carcinoma cells. Cancer Res 1993; 53:41026.
  • 30
    Oberyszyn TM, Sabourin CL, Bijur GN, Oberyszyn AS, Boros LG, Robertson FM. Interleukin-1 alpha gene expression and localization of interleukin-1 alpha protein during tumor promotion. Mol Carcinog 1993; 7:23848.
  • 31
    Bereznaya NM, Chekhun VF. Expression of CD40 and CD40L on tumor cells: the role of their interaction and new approach to immunotherapy. Exp Oncol 2007; 29:212.
  • 32
    Huang YT, Sheen TS, Chen CL et al. Profile of cytokine expression in nasopharyngeal carcinomas: a distinct expression of interleukin 1 in tumor and CD4+ T cells. Cancer Res 1999; 59:1599605.
  • 33
    Caggiari L, Guidoboni M, Vaccher E et al. High serum levels of soluble CD40-L in patients with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: pathogenic and clinical relevance. Infect Agent Cancer 2007; 2:5.
  • 34
    Agathanggelou A, Niedobitek G, Chen R, Nicholls J, Yin W, Young LS. Expression of immune regulatory molecules in Epstein–Barr virus-associated nasopharyngeal carcinomas with prominent lymphoid stroma. Evidence for a functional interaction between epithelial tumor cells and infiltrating lymphoid cells. Am J Pathol 1995; 147:115260.
  • 35
    Reddy SP, Raslan WF, Gooneratne S, Kathuria S, Marks JE. Prognostic significance of keratinization in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Am J Otolaryngol 1995; 16:1038.
  • 36
    Hiraoka N, Onozato K, Kosuge T, Hirohashi S. Prevalence of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells increases during the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and its premalignant lesions. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12:542334.
  • 37
    Wolf D, Wolf AM, Rumpold H et al. The expression of the regulatory T cell-specific forkhead box transcription factor FoxP3 is associated with poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11:832631.
  • 38
    Sasaki A, Tanaka F, Mimori K et al. Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol 2008; 34:1739.
  • 39
    Badoual C, Hans S, Rodriguez J et al. Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T-cell subpopulations in head and neck cancers. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12:46572.
  • 40
    Gjerdrum LM, Woetmann A, Odum N et al. FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: association with disease stage and survival. Leukemia 2007; 21:251218.
  • 41
    Grabenbauer GG, Lahmer G, Distel L, Niedobitek G. Tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells but not regulatory T cells predict outcome in anal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12:335560.
  • 42
    Tartour E, Latour S, Mathiot C et al. Variable expression of CD3-zeta chain in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) derived from renal-cell carcinoma: relationship with TIL phenotype and function. Int J Cancer 1995; 63:20512.
  • 43
    Lai P, Rabinowich H, Crowley-Nowick PA, Bell MC, Mantovani G, Whiteside TL. Alterations in expression and function of signal-transducing proteins in tumor-associated T and natural killer cells in patients with ovarian carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 1996; 2:16173.
  • 44
    Zea AH, Curti BD, Longo DL et al. Alterations in T cell receptor and signal transduction molecules in melanoma patients. Clin Cancer Res 1995; 1:132735.
  • 45
    Zanussi S, Vaccher E, Caffau C et al. Interferon-gamma secretion and perforin expression are impaired in CD8+ T lymphocytes from patients with undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2003; 52:2832.
  • 46
    Reichert TE, Strauss L, Wagner EM, Gooding W, Whiteside TL. Signaling abnormalities, apoptosis, and reduced proliferation of circulating and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with oral carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2002; 8:313745.
  • 47
    Dworacki G, Meidenbauer N, Kuss I et al. Decreased zeta chain expression and apoptosis in CD3+ peripheral blood T lymphocytes of patients with melanoma. Clin Cancer Res 2001; 7:947s57s.
  • 48
    Rabinowich H, Reichert TE, Kashii Y, Gastman BR, Bell MC, Whiteside TL. Lymphocyte apoptosis induced by Fas ligand-expressing ovarian carcinoma cells. Implications for altered expression of T cell receptor in tumor-associated lymphocytes. J Clin Invest 1998; 101:257988.
  • 49
    Atarashi Y, Kanaya H, Whieside TL. A modified JAM assay detects apoptosis induced in activated lymphocytes by FasL+ human adherent tumor cells. J Immunol Methods 2000; 233:17983.
  • 50
    Reichert TE, Rabinowich H, Johnson JT, Whiteside TL. Mechanisms responsible for signaling and functional defects. J Immunother (1997) 1998; 21:295306.
  • 51
    Gastman BR, Johnson DE, Whiteside TL, Rabinowich H. Caspase-mediated degradation of T-cell receptor zeta-chain. Cancer Res 1999; 59:14227.
  • 52
    Takahashi A, Kono K, Amemiya H, Iizuka H, Fujii H, Matsumoto Y. Elevated caspase-3 activity in peripheral blood T cells coexists with increased degree of T-cell apoptosis and down-regulation of TCR zeta molecules in patients with gastric cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2001; 7:7480.
  • 53
    Taylor DD, Bender DP, Gercel-Taylor C, Stanson J, Whiteside TL. Modulation of TcR/CD3-zeta chain expression by a circulating factor derived from ovarian cancer patients. Br J Cancer 2001; 84:16249.
  • 54
    Kono K, Salazar-Onfray F, Petersson M et al. Hydrogen peroxide secreted by tumor-derived macrophages down-modulates signal-transducing zeta molecules and inhibits tumor-specific T cell- and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Eur J Immunol 1996; 26:130813.
  • 55
    Kiessling R, Kono K, Petersson M, Wasserman K. Immunosuppression in human tumor–host interaction: role of cytokines and alterations in signal-transducing molecules. Springer Semin Immunopathol 1996; 18:22742.
  • 56
    Tsai ST, Fang SY, Jin YT, Su IJ, Yang BC. Analysis of the expression of Fas-L in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues. Oral Oncol 1999; 35:4214.