Mycobacterial antigen-induced T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from diabetic and non-diabetic tuberculosis patients and Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette–Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated healthy subjects
Article first published online: 15 JUL 2009
© 2009 British Society for Immunology
Clinical & Experimental Immunology
Volume 158, Issue 1, pages 64–73, October 2009
How to Cite
Al-Attiyah, R. J. and Mustafa, A. S. (2009), Mycobacterial antigen-induced T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from diabetic and non-diabetic tuberculosis patients and Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette–Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated healthy subjects. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 158: 64–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2009.04000.x
- Issue published online: 2 SEP 2009
- Article first published online: 15 JUL 2009
- Accepted for publication 7 July 2009
- 1Global epidemiology of tuberculosis. Lancet 2006; 36:938–40..
- 2The double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in developing countries. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2006; 100:191–9..
- 3Diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and the mycobacteria: two millennia of enigma. Med Hypotheses 2005; 65:433–9..
- 4Longitudinal assessment of IFN-gamma production in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with diabetes mellitus. Kekkaku 2002; 77:409–13 [in Japanese., , et al.
- 5Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with tuberculosis in Indonesia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2006; 10:696–700., , et al.
- 6The relationship between diabetes and tuberculosis in Saskatchewan: comparison of registered Indians and other Saskatchewan people. Can J Public Health 2007; 98:55–9., , et al.
- 7Tuberculosis in diabetic patients in Tanzania. Trop Doct 1990; 20:147–50., , .
- 8Recombinant and synthetic peptides to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens and epitopes of diagnostic and vaccine relevance. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2005; 85:367–76..
- 9Specific features of cellular immunity of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. Probl Tuberk 1997; 6:59–60 [in Russian., , .
- 10Depressed immunological defence mechanisms in mice with experimentally induced diabetes. Infect Immun 1980; 28:127–31., , , .
- 11Cytokine profiles in tuberculosis patients and healthy subjects in response to complex and single antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2006; 47:254–61., , , , , .
- 12Morphometric analysis of Th(1) and Th(2) cytokine expression in human pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis 2004; 84:375–85., , , , .
- 13Immunology of tuberculosis and implications in vaccine development. Tuberculosis 2004; 4:93–101..
- 14In vivo IL-10 production reactivates chronic pulmonary tuberculosis in C57BL/6 mice. J Immunol 2002; 169:6343–51., , et al.
- 15Control of human host immunity to mycobacteria. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2005; 85:53–64., , , .
- 16A new protocol for multiple inhalation of IFN-gamma successfully treats MDR-TB: a case study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2008; 12:636–44., .
- 17Detection of active tuberculosis infection by T cell responses to early-secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein and culture filtrate protein 10. J Infect Dis 2001; 181:1850–4., , et al.
- 18Use in routine clinical practice of two commercial blood tests for diagnosis of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a prospective study. Lancet 2006; 367:1328–34., , et al.
- 19Diagnosis of tuberculosis in South African children with a T-cell-based assay: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 2004; 364:2196–203., , , , , .
- 20Secreted lymphotoxin-alpha is essential for the control of an intracellular bacterial infection. J Exp Med 2001; 193:239–46., , et al.
- 21Mycobacterial purified protein derivatives stimulate innate immunity: Malawians show enhanced tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-10 responses compared to those of adolescents in the United Kingdom. Infect Immun 2004; 72:1807–11., , et al.
- 22Th2 cytokines in susceptibility to tuberculosis. Curr Mol Med 2007; 7:327–37..
- 23Lower expression of Th1-related cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clin Exp Immunol 2005; 139:57–64., , et al.
- 24The role of interferon-gamma in the increased tuberculosis risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2008; 27:97–103., , et al.
- 25Tuberculosis in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes: altered cytokine expression in peripheral white blood cells. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47:634–41., , et al.
- 26Identification of transcriptionally active open reading frames within the RD1 genomic segment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Med Princ Pract 2006; 15:137–44., , .
- 27Comparative genomics of BCG vaccines by whole-genome DNA microarray. Science 1999; 284:1520–3., , et al.
- 28Synthetic peptides identify promiscuous human Th1 cell epitopes of the secreted mycobacterial antigen MPB70. Infect Immun 2003; 71:1953–60., , , , .
- 29ProPred analysis and experimental evaluation of promiscuous T-cell epitopes of three major secreted antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2006; 86:115–24., .
- 30Whole blood assays to identify Th1 cell antigens and peptides encoded by Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific RD1 genes. Med Princ Pract 2008; 17:244–9., , , .
- 31Characterization of human cellular immune responses to novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens encoded by genomic regions absent in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Infect Immun 2008; 76:4190–8., .
- 32Efficient testing of pools of large numbers of peptides covering 12 open reading frames of M. tuberculosis RD1 and identification of major antigens and immunodominant peptides recognized by humanTh1 cells. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2008; 15:916–24., , , .
- 33Cell mediated immune responses to complex and single mycobacterial antigens in tuberculosis patients with diabetes. Med Princ Pract 2008; 17:325–30., , , , .
- 34Discrepancy between Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific gamma interferon release assays using short and prolonged in vitro incubation. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2007; 14:880–5., , , , , .
- 35PPE protein (Rv3873) from DNA segment RD1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: strong recognition of both specific T-cell epitopes and epitopes conserved within the PPE family. Infect Immun 2003; 71:6116–23., , et al.
- 36Enumeration of T cells specific for RD1-encoded antigens suggests a high prevalence of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in healthy urban Indians. J Infect Dis 2001; 183:469–77., , et al.
- 37T-cell responses to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigen ESAT-6 in Brazilian tuberculosis patients. Infect Immun 2002; 70:6707–14., , et al.
- 38Dichotomy of cytokine profiles in patients and high-risk healthy subjects exposed to tuberculosis. Infect Immun 1999; 67:5597–603., , , .
- 39Spontaneous cytokine production and its effect on induced production. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2002; 9:1049–56., , et al.
- 40Relationship of cell cycle to recovery of IL-2 activity from human mononuclear cells, human and mouse T cell lines. J Immunol 1981; 127:1936–40., , , .
- 41Ex vivo evaluation of PPD-specific IFN-gamma or IL-5 secreting cells in the peripheral blood and lungs of patients with tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2005; 9:753–9., , , , , .
- 42Innate immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002; 15:294–309., , .
- 43T cell-derived IL-10 antagonizes macrophage function in mycobacterial infection. J Immunol 1997; 158:315–21., , , , .
- 44Are CD4+ Th1 cells pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory? The ratio of IL-10 to IFN-gamma or IL-2 determines their function. Int Immunol 1995; 7:1287–94., , , .
- 45Interferon γ/IL-10 ratio defines the disease severity in pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis 2007; 87:279–87., , et al.
- 46Dynamic changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine profiles and gamma interferon receptor signaling integrity correlate with tuberculosis disease activity and response to curative treatment. Infect Immun 2007; 75:820–9., , et al.
- 47Mycobacteria induce CD4+ T cells that are cytotoxic and display Th1-like cytokine secretion profile: heterogeneity in cytotoxic activity and cytokine secretion levels. Eur J Immunol 1993; 23:2189–95., , .
- 48Neonatal mycobacterial specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and cytokine profiles in response to distinct BCG vaccination strategies. Immunology 2002; 105:314–24., , et al.
- 49Type 2 cytokine gene activation and its relationship to extent of disease in patients with tuberculosis. J Infect Dis 2000; 181:385–9., , .
- 50Active tuberculosis in Africa is associated with reduced Th1 and increased Th2 activity in vivo. Eur J Immunol 2002; 32:1605–13., , et al.
- 51Progress in tuberculosis vaccine development. Curr Opin Immunol 2006; 18:438–48., , .
- 52CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells suppress Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunity in patients with active disease. Clin Immunol 2007; 123:50–9., , et al.
- 53Healthy individuals that control a latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis express high levels of Th1 cytokines and the IL-4 antagonist IL-4delta2. J Immunol 2004; 172:6938–43., , et al.
- 54In vivo and in vitro studies of a novel cytokine, interleukin 4delta2, in pulmonary tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 172:501–8., , et al.
- 55Ex vivo cytokine mRNA levels correlate with changing clinical status of Ethiopian TB patients and their contacts over time. PLoS ONE 2008; 3:e1522., , et al.