Chronic antigenic stimuli as a possible explanation for the immunodepression caused by liver cirrhosis
Article first published online: 23 JUL 2009
© 2009 British Society for Immunology
Clinical & Experimental Immunology
Volume 158, Issue 2, pages 219–229, November 2009
How to Cite
Márquez, M., Fernández-Gutiérrez, C., Montes-de-Oca, M., Blanco, M. J., Brun, F., Rodríguez-Ramos, C. and Girón-González, J. A. (2009), Chronic antigenic stimuli as a possible explanation for the immunodepression caused by liver cirrhosis. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 158: 219–229. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2009.04005.x
- Issue published online: 1 OCT 2009
- Article first published online: 23 JUL 2009
- Accepted for publication 15 July 2009
- 1Bacterial infection in liver disease. Semin Liver Dis 1997; 17:323–33., , .
- 2Bacterial infection related morbidity and mortality in cirrosis. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102:1510–17., , .
- 3Impaired function of macrophage Fc gamma receptors and bacterial infection in alcoholic cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 1994; 331:1122–8., , .
- 4Clinical significance of the evaluation of hepatic reticulo-endothelial removal capacity in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology 1994; 19:628–34., , et al.
- 5Decreased natural killer cytotoxic activity in chronic alcoholism is associated with alcohol liver disease but not active ethanol consumption. Hepatology 1997; 25:1096–100., , et al.
- 6T Lymphocytes from alcoholic cirrhotic patients show normal interleukin 2 production but a defective proliferative response to polyclonal mitogens. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89:767–73., , et al.
- 7Increased spontaneous and lymphokine-conditioned immunoglobulin A and G synthesis by B cells from alcoholic cirrhotic patients. Hepatology 1992; 16:664–70., , et al.
- 8IgM B cell differentiation production by T lymphocytes from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. J Hepatol 1994; 20:446–53., , et al.
- 9Bacterial translocation in cirrhotic rats stimulates eNOS-derived NO production and impairs mesenteric vascular contractility. J Clin Invest 1999; 104:1223–33., , , , , .
- 10Serum and ascitic fluid bacterial DNA: a new independent prognostic factor in non-infected patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology 2008; 48:1924–31., , et al.
- 11A novel acute-phase marker: lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP). Clin Chem Lab Med 1999; 37:271–4., .
- 12Increased lipopolysaccharide binding protein in cirrhotic patients with marked immune and hemodynamic derangement. Hepatology 2003; 37:208–17., , et al.
- 13Increased tumor necrosis factor-α production in mesenteric lymph nodes of cirrhotic patients with ascites. Gut 2003; 52:1054–9., , et al.
- 14Implication of inflammation-related cytokines in the natural history of liver cirrhosis. Liver Int 2004; 24:437–45., , et al.
- 15Tumour necrosis factor-alpha expression by altered monocytes and altered T-cell homeostasis in ascitic alcoholic cirrhosis: amelioration with norfloxacin. J Hepatol 2004; 40:624–31., , et al.
- 16Serum lipopolysaccharide binding-protein prediction of severe bacterial infection in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Lancet 2004; 363:1608–10., ,
- 17Superantigen recognition by HLA class II on monocytes up-regulates Toll-like receptor 4 and enhances proinflammatory responses to endotoxin. Blood 2005; 105:3655–62., , , , , .
- 18The immunology of sepsis. J Pathol 2008; 214:211–23., .
- 19Interleukin-2: inception, impact, and implications. Science 1988; 240:1169–76..
- 20Expression of CD57 defines replicative senescence and antigen-induced apoptotic death of CD8+ T cells. Blood 2003; 101:2711–20., , et al.
- 21The two-signal model of T-cell activation after 30 years. Transplantation 2002; 73:S31–S35., , .
- 22The B7 family of ligands and its receptors: new pathways for co-stimulation and inhibition of immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol 2002; 20:29–53., .
- 23Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor FoxP3. Science 2003; 299:1057–61., , .
- 24Classification of chronic hepatitis: diagnosis, grading and staging. Hepatology 1994; 19:1513–20., , , , .
- 25Sonography of diffuse liver disease. J Ultrasound Med 2002; 21:1023–32., , , .
- 26Transection of the oesophagus for bleeding oesophageal varices. Br J Surg 1973; 60:646–9., , , , .
- 27A model to predict survival in patients with end-stage liver disease. Hepatology 2001; 33:464–70., , et al.
- 28Shedding of tumor necrosis factor receptors by activated human neutrophils. J Exp Med 1990; 172:599–607., .
- 29Excessive in vitro bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced production on monokines in cirrhosis. Hepatology 1990; 11:628–34., , et al.
- 30Death receptor signalling. J Cell Sci 2005; 118:265–7., , .
- 31Activation-induced cell death in T cells. Immunol Rev 2003; 193:70–81., , .
- 32Concepts of activated T cell death. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2008; 66:52–64., , .
- 33Human germinal center T cells are unique T cells with high propensity for apoptosis induction. Int Immunol 2006; 18:1337–45., , .
- 34Increased expression of NK cell markers on T lymphocytes in aging and chronic activation of the immune system reflects the accumulation of effector/senescent T cells. Mech Ageing Dev 2000; 121:77–88., , et al.
- 35Multiple functions for CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 during different phases of T cell responses: implications for arthritis and autoimmune diseases. Arthritis Res Ther 2004; 6:45–54., , .
- 36Stimulation of human T lymphocytes by LPS is MHC unrestricted, but strongly dependent on B7 interactions. J Immunol 1998; 160:3412–18., , , , .
- 37Innate immunity. N Engl J Med 2000; 343:338–44., .
- 38Natural versus adaptive regulatory T cells. Nat Rev Immunol 2003; 3:253–7., .
- 39CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells downregulate co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Eur J Immunol 2000; 30:1538–43., , .
- 40Human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and infectious tolerance. Transplantation 2004; 77 (Suppl.):S23–5., , .
- 41An immunomodulatory role for CD4+CD25+ regulatory T lymphocytes in hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 2004; 40:1062–71., , et al.
- 42CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control Leishmania major persistence and immunity. Nature 2002; 420:502–7., , , , .
- 43Lipopolysaccharide induces synthesis of mouse colony-stimulating factor-1 in vivo. J Immunol 1997; 158:3874–80., , .
- 44Immunopathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection: multifaceted strategies subverting innate and adaptative immunity. Intern Med 2006; 45:183–91., .
- 45Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with changes in the distribution, immunophenotype, and the inflammatory cytokine secretion profile of circulating dendritic cells. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2007; 31:846–54., , , , .
- 46Innate and adaptive lymphoid cells in the human liver. Immunol Rev 2000; 174:5–20., .
- 47Immune-mediated liver injury. Semin Liver Dis 2007; 27:351–66., , , , .
- 48Antigen-independent activation of naive and memory resting T cells by a cytokine combination. J Exp Med 1994; 180:1159–64., , .