SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Fowke KR, Nagelkerke NJ, Kimani J et al. Resistance to HIV-1 infection among persistently seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. Lancet 1996; 348:134751.
  • 2
    Jennes W, Verheyden S, Demanet C et al. Cutting edge: resistance to HIV-1 infection among African female sex workers is associated with inhibitory KIR in the absence of their HLA ligands. J Immunol 2006; 177:658892.
  • 3
    Beretta A, Furci L, Burastero S et al. HIV-1-specific immunity in persistently seronegative individuals at high risk for HIV infection. Immunol Lett 1996; 51:3943.
  • 4
    Clerici M, Giorgi JV, Chou CC et al. Cell-mediated immune response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 in seronegative homosexual men with recent sexual exposure to HIV-1. J Infect Dis 1992; 165:10129.
  • 5
    Mazzoli S, Trabattoni D, Lo Caputo S et al. HIV-specific mucosal and cellular immunity in HIV-seronegative partners of HIV-seropositive individuals. Nat Med 1997; 3:12507.
  • 6
    Montoya CJ, Velilla PA, Chougnet C, Landay AL, Rugeles MT. Increased IFN-gamma production by NK and CD3+/CD56+ cells in sexually HIV-1-exposed but uninfected individuals. Clin Immunol 2006; 120:13846.
  • 7
    Pallikkuth S, Wanchu A, Bhatnagar A, Sachdeva RK, Sharma M. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gag antigen-specific T-helper and granule-dependent CD8 T-cell activities in exposed but uninfected heterosexual partners of HIV type 1-infected individuals in North India. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2007; 14:1196202.
  • 8
    Promadej-Lanier N, Hanson DL, Srinivasan P et al. Resistance to simian HIV infection is associated with high plasma interleukin-8, RANTES and eotaxin in a macaque model of repeated virus challenges. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 53:57481.
  • 9
    Letvin NL, Rao SS, Dang V et al. No evidence for consistent virus-specific immunity in simian immunodeficiency virus-exposed, uninfected rhesus monkeys. J Virol 2007; 81:1236874.
  • 10
    Ballan WM, Vu BA, Long BR et al. Natural killer cells in perinatally HIV-1-infected children exhibit less degranulation compared to HIV-1-exposed uninfected children and their expression of KIR2DL3, NKG2C, and NKp46 correlates with disease severity. J Immunol 2007; 179:336270.
  • 11
    Clerici M, Sison AV, Berzofsky JA et al. Cellular immune factors associated with mother-to-infant transmission of HIV. AIDS 1993; 7:142733.
  • 12
    Tiemessen CT, Shalekoff S, Meddows-Taylor S et al. Cutting edge: unusual NK cell responses to HIV-1 peptides are associated with protection against maternal–infant transmission of HIV-1. J Immunol 2009; 182:59148.
  • 13
    Winchester R, Pitt J, Charurat M et al. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1: strong association with certain maternal HLA-B alleles independent of viral load implicates innate immune mechanisms. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 36:65970.
  • 14
    Pinto LA, Sullivan J, Berzofsky JA et al. ENV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in HIV seronegative health care workers occupationally exposed to HIV-contaminated body fluids. J Clin Invest 1995; 96:86776.
  • 15
    Kroner BL, Rosenberg PS, Aledort LM, Alvord WG, Goedert JJ. HIV-1 infection incidence among persons with hemophilia in the United States and Western Europe, 1978–1990. Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1994; 7:27986.
  • 16
    Salkowitz JR, Purvis SF, Meyerson H et al. Characterization of high-risk HIV-1 seronegative hemophiliacs. Clin Immunol 2001; 98:20011.
  • 17
    Boulet S, Sharafi S, Simic N et al. Increased proportion of KIR3DS1 homozygotes in HIV-exposed uninfected individuals. AIDS 2008; 22:5959.
  • 18
    Follezou JY, Lan NY, Lien TX et al. Clinical and biological characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected intravascular drug users in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1999; 61:4204.
  • 19
    Scott-Algara D, Truong LX, Versmisse P et al. Cutting edge: increased NK cell activity in HIV-1-exposed but uninfected Vietnamese intravascular drug users. J Immunol 2003; 171:56637.
  • 20
    Tomescu C, Duh FM, Lanier MA et al. Increased plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation and natural killer cell activation in HIV-1 exposed, uninfected intravenous drug users. AIDS 2010; 24:215160.
  • 21
    Horton RE, McLaren PJ, Fowke K, Kimani J, Ball TB. Cohorts for the study of HIV-1-exposed but uninfected individuals: benefits and limitations. J Infect Dis 2010; 202 (Suppl. 3):S37781.
  • 22
    Boileau C, Bruneau J, Al-Nachawati H, Lamothe F, Vincelette J. A prognostic model for HIV seroconversion among injection drug users as a tool for stratification in clinical trials. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 39:48995.
  • 23
    Ranki A, Mattinen S, Yarchoan R et al. T-cell response towards HIV in infected individuals with and without zidovudine therapy, and in HIV-exposed sexual partners. AIDS 1989; 3:639.
  • 24
    Clerici M, Levin JM, Kessler HA et al. HIV-specific T-helper activity in seronegative health care workers exposed to contaminated blood. JAMA 1994; 271:426.
  • 25
    Alimonti JB, Kimani J, Matu L et al. Characterization of CD8 T-cell responses in HIV-1-exposed seronegative commercial sex workers from Nairobi, Kenya. Immunol Cell Biol 2006; 84:4825.
    Direct Link:
  • 26
    Erickson AL, Willberg CB, McMahan V et al. Potentially exposed but uninfected individuals produce cytotoxic and polyfunctional human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses which can be defined to the epitope level. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2008; 15:17458.
  • 27
    Restrepo C, Rallon NI, del Romero J et al. Low-level exposure to HIV induces virus-specific T cell responses and immune activation in exposed HIV-seronegative individuals. J Immunol 2010; 185:9829.
  • 28
    Boulet S, Kleyman M, Kim JY et al. A combined genotype of KIR3DL1 high expressing alleles and HLA-B*57 is associated with a reduced risk of HIV infection. AIDS 2008; 22:148791.
  • 29
    Lacap PA, Huntington JD, Luo M et al. Associations of human leukocyte antigen DRB with resistance or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort. AIDS 2008; 22:102938.
  • 30
    Killian MS, Johnson C, Teque F, Fujimura S, Levy JA. Natural suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication is mediated by transitional memory CD8+ T cells. J Virol 2011; 85:1696705.
  • 31
    Betts MR, Nason MC, West SM et al. HIV nonprogressors preferentially maintain highly functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. Blood 2006; 107:47819.
  • 32
    Boaz MJ, Waters A, Murad S, Easterbrook PJ, Vyakarnam A. Presence of HIV-1 Gag-specific IFN-gamma+IL-2+ and CD28+IL-2+ CD4 T cell responses is associated with nonprogression in HIV-1 infection. J Immunol 2002; 169:637685.
  • 33
    McElrath MJ, De Rosa SC, Moodie Z et al. HIV-1 vaccine-induced immunity in the test-of-concept Step Study: a case–cohort analysis. Lancet 2008; 372:1894905.
  • 34
    Sekaly RP. The failed HIV Merck vaccine study: a step back or a launching point for future vaccine development? J Exp Med 2008; 205:712.
  • 35
    Buchbinder SP, Mehrotra DV, Duerr A et al. Efficacy assessment of a cell-mediated immunity HIV-1 vaccine (the Step Study): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, test-of-concept trial. Lancet 2008; 372:188193.
  • 36
    Addo MM, Altfeld M, Brainard DM et al. Lack of detectable HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses in Zambian HIV-1-exposed seronegative partners of HIV-1-positive individuals. J Infect Dis 2011; 203:25862.
  • 37
    Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J et al. New insights into HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, persistently seronegative Kenyan sex workers. Immunol Lett 2001; 79:313.
  • 38
    Kaul R, MacDonald KS, Nagelkerke NJ et al. HIV viral set point and host immune control in individuals with HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses prior to HIV acquisition. AIDS 2010; 24:144954.
  • 39
    Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J et al. Late seroconversion in HIV-resistant Nairobi prostitutes despite pre-existing HIV-specific CD8+ responses. J Clin Invest 2001; 107:3419.
  • 40
    Liu Y, Woodward A, Zhu H et al. Preinfection human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes failed to prevent HIV type 1 infection from strains genetically unrelated to viruses in long-term exposed partners. J Virol 2009; 83:108219.
  • 41
    Lederman MM, Alter G, Daskalakis DC et al. Determinants of protection among HIV-exposed seronegative persons: an overview. J Infect Dis 2011; 202 (Suppl. 3):S3338.
  • 42
    Miyazawa M, Lopalco L, Mazzotta F, Lo Caputo S, Veas F, Clerici M. The ‘immunologic advantage’ of HIV-exposed seronegative individuals. AIDS 2009; 23:16175.
  • 43
    Piacentini L, Fenizia C, Naddeo V, Clerici M. Not just sheer luck! Immune correlates of protection against HIV-1 infection. Vaccine 2008; 26:30027.
  • 44
    Broliden K, Hinkula J, Devito C et al. Functional HIV-1 specific IgA antibodies in HIV-1 exposed, persistently IgG seronegative female sex workers. Immunol Lett 2001; 79:2936.
  • 45
    Kaul R, Plummer F, Clerici M, Bomsel M, Lopalco L, Broliden K. Mucosal IgA in exposed, uninfected subjects: evidence for a role in protection against HIV infection. AIDS 2001; 15:4312.
  • 46
    Kaul R, Trabattoni D, Bwayo JJ et al. HIV-1-specific mucosal IgA in a cohort of HIV-1-resistant Kenyan sex workers. AIDS 1999; 13:239.
  • 47
    Mazzoli S, Lopalco L, Salvi A et al. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific IgA and HIV neutralizing activity in the serum of exposed seronegative partners of HIV-seropositive persons. J Infect Dis 1999; 180:8715.
  • 48
    Hirbod T, Kaul R, Reichard C et al. HIV-neutralizing immunoglobulin A and HIV-specific proliferation are independently associated with reduced HIV acquisition in Kenyan sex workers. AIDS 2008; 22:72735.
  • 49
    Hasselrot K, Saberg P, Hirbod T et al. Oral HIV-exposure elicits mucosal HIV-neutralizing antibodies in uninfected men who have sex with men. AIDS 2009; 23:32933.
  • 50
    Perez CL, Hasselrot K, Bratt G, Broliden K, Karlsson AC. Induction of systemic HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses by oral exposure in the uninfected partner of discordant couples. AIDS 2010; 24:96974.
  • 51
    Farquhar C, VanCott T, Bosire R et al. Salivary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-specific immunoglobulin A in HIV-1-exposed infants in Kenya. Clin Exp Immunol 2008; 153:3743.
  • 52
    Dorrell L, Hessell AJ, Wang M et al. Absence of specific mucosal antibody responses in HIV-exposed uninfected sex workers from The Gambia. AIDS 2000; 14:111722.
  • 53
    Clerici M, Barassi C, Devito C et al. Serum IgA of HIV-exposed uninfected individuals inhibit HIV through recognition of a region within the alpha-helix of gp41. AIDS 2002; 16:173141.
  • 54
    Devito C, Broliden K, Kaul R et al. Mucosal and plasma IgA from HIV-1-exposed uninfected individuals inhibit HIV-1 transcytosis across human epithelial cells. J Immunol 2000; 165:51706.
  • 55
    Tudor D, Derrien M, Diomede L et al. HIV-1 gp41-specific monoclonal mucosal IgAs derived from highly exposed but IgG-seronegative individuals block HIV-1 epithelial transcytosis and neutralize CD4(+) cell infection: an IgA gene and functional analysis. Mucosal Immunol 2009; 2:41226.
  • 56
    Herr AB, White CL, Milburn C, Wu C, Bjorkman PJ. Bivalent binding of IgA1 to FcalphaRI suggests a mechanism for cytokine activation of IgA phagocytosis. J Mol Biol 2003; 327:64557.
  • 57
    Raghavan M, Bjorkman PJ. Fc receptors and their interactions with immunoglobulins. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 1996; 12:181220.
  • 58
    Nguyen M, Pean P, Lopalco L et al. HIV-specific antibodies but not T-cell responses are associated with protection in seronegative partners of HIV-1-infected individuals in Cambodia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 42:4129.
  • 59
    Mestecky J, Wright PF, Lopalco L et al. Scarcity or absence of humoral immune responses in the plasma and cervicovaginal lavage fluids of heavily HIV-1-exposed but persistently seronegative women. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2010; Epub ahead of print.
  • 60
    Horton RE, Ball TB, Wachichi C et al. Cervical HIV-specific IgA in a population of commercial sex workers correlates with repeated exposure but not resistance to HIV. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2009; 25:8392.
  • 61
    Fonck K, Kaul R, Keli F et al. Sexually transmitted infections and vaginal douching in a population of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Infect 2001; 77:2715.
  • 62
    Hirbod T, Broliden K. Mucosal immune responses in the genital tract of HIV-1-exposed uninfected women. J Intern Med 2007; 262:4458.
  • 63
    Iqbal SM, Kaul R. Mucosal innate immunity as a determinant of HIV susceptibility. Am J Reprod Immunol 2008; 59:4454.
  • 64
    Suresh P, Wanchu A, Bhatnagar A, Sachdeva RK, Sharma M. Spontaneous and antigen-induced chemokine production in exposed but uninfected partners of HIV type 1-infected individuals in North India. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2007; 23:2618.
  • 65
    Furci L, Scarlatti G, Burastero S et al. Antigen-driven C-C chemokine-mediated HIV-1 suppression by CD4(+) T cells from exposed uninfected individuals expressing the wild-type CCR-5 allele. J Exp Med 1997; 186:45560.
  • 66
    Hasselrot K, Bratt G, Duvefelt K, Hirbod T, Sandstrom E, Broliden K. HIV-1 exposed uninfected men who have sex with men have increased levels of salivary CC-chemokines associated with sexual behavior. AIDS 2010; 24:156975.
  • 67
    Iqbal SM, Ball TB, Kimani J et al. Elevated T cell counts and RANTES expression in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant Kenyan commercial sex workers. J Infect Dis 2005; 192:72838.
  • 68
    Malnati MS, Tambussi G, Clerici E et al. Increased plasma levels of the C-C chemokine RANTES in patients with primary HIV-1 infection. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 1997; 11:402.
  • 69
    McNeely TB, Dealy M, Dripps DJ, Orenstein JM, Eisenberg SP, Wahl SM. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor: a human saliva protein exhibiting anti-human immunodeficiency virus 1 activity in vitro. J Clin Invest 1995; 96:45664.
  • 70
    Groot F, Geijtenbeek TB, Sanders RW et al. Lactoferrin prevents dendritic cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission by blocking the DC-SIGN–gp120 interaction. J Virol 2005; 79:300915.
  • 71
    Harmsen MC, Swart PJ, de Bethune MP, Pauwels R, De Clercq E. The TH, Meijer DK. Antiviral effects of plasma and milk proteins: lactoferrin shows potent activity against both human immunodeficiency virus and human cytomegalovirus replication in vitro. J Infect Dis 1995; 172:3808.
  • 72
    Viani RM, Gutteberg TJ, Lathey JL, Spector SA. Lactoferrin inhibits HIV-1 replication in vitro and exhibits synergy when combined with zidovudine. AIDS 1999; 13:12734.
  • 73
    Novak RM, Donoval BA, Graham PJ et al. Cervicovaginal levels of lactoferrin, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, and RANTES and the effects of coexisting vaginoses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative women with a high risk of heterosexual acquisition of HIV infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2007; 14:11027.
  • 74
    Iqbal SM, Ball TB, Levinson P et al. Elevated elafin/trappin-2 in the female genital tract is associated with protection against HIV acquisition. AIDS 2009; 23:166977.
  • 75
    Weinberg A, Quinones-Mateu ME, Lederman MM. Role of human beta-defensins in HIV infection. Adv Dent Res 2006; 19:428.
  • 76
    Kuhn L, Trabattoni D, Kankasa C et al. Alpha-defensins in the prevention of HIV transmission among breastfed infants. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 39:13842.
  • 77
    Quinones-Mateu ME, Lederman MM, Feng Z et al. Human epithelial beta-defensins 2 and 3 inhibit HIV-1 replication. AIDS 2003; 17:F3948.
  • 78
    Rodriguez-Garcia M, Climent N, Oliva H et al. Increased alpha-defensins 1-3 production by dendritic cells in HIV-infected individuals is associated with slower disease progression. PLoS ONE 2010; 5:e9436.
  • 79
    Trabattoni D, Caputo SL, Maffeis G et al. Human alpha defensin in HIV-exposed but uninfected individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 35:45563.
  • 80
    Zapata W, Rodriguez B, Weber J et al. Increased levels of human beta-defensins mRNA in sexually HIV-1 exposed but uninfected individuals. Curr HIV Res 2008; 6:5318.
  • 81
    Levinson P, Kaul R, Kimani J et al. Levels of innate immune factors in genital fluids: association of alpha defensins and LL-37 with genital infections and increased HIV acquisition. AIDS 2009; 23:30917.
  • 82
    Bosire R, John-Stewart GC, Mabuka JM et al. Breast milk alpha-defensins are associated with HIV type 1 RNA and CC chemokines in breast milk but not vertical HIV type 1 transmission. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2007; 23:198203.
  • 83
    Biassoni R, Cantoni C, Pende D et al. Human natural killer cell receptors and co-receptors. Immunol Rev 2001; 181:20314.
  • 84
    Long EO, Burshtyn DN, Clark WP et al. Killer cell inhibitory receptors: diversity, specificity, and function. Immunol Rev 1997; 155:13544.
  • 85
    Boyton RJ, Altmann DM. Natural killer cells, killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leucocyte antigen class I in disease. Clin Exp Immunol 2007; 149:18.
  • 86
    Altfeld M, Kalife ET, Qi Y et al. HLA alleles associated with delayed progression to AIDS contribute strongly to the initial CD8(+) T cell response against HIV-1. PLoS Med 2006; 3:e403.
  • 87
    Martin MP, Qi Y, Gao X et al. Innate partnership of HLA-B and KIR3DL1 subtypes against HIV-1. Nat Genet 2007; 39:73340.
  • 88
    Long BR, Ndhlovu LC, Oksenberg JR et al. KIR3DS1 conferral of enhanced natural killer cell function in early HIV-1 infection. J Virol 2008; 82:478592.
  • 89
    Alter G, Martin MP, Teigen N et al. Differential natural killer cell-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 replication based on distinct KIR/HLA subtypes. J Exp Med 2007; 204:302736.
  • 90
    Lajoie J, Hargrove J, Zijenah LS, Humphrey JH, Ward BJ, Roger M. Genetic variants in nonclassical major histocompatibility complex class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E and HLA-G molecules are associated with susceptibility to heterosexual acquisition of HIV-1. J Infect Dis 2006; 193:298301.
  • 91
    Ravet S, Scott-Algara D, Bonnet E et al. Distinctive NK-cell receptor repertoires sustain high-level constitutive NK-cell activation in HIV-exposed uninfected individuals. Blood 2007; 109:4296305.
  • 92
    Tomescu C, Chehimi J, Maino VC, Montaner LJ. Retention of viability, cytotoxicity, and response to IL-2, IL-15, or IFN-{alpha} by human NK cells after CD107a degranulation. J Leukoc Biol 2009; 85:8716.
  • 93
    Biron CA, Nguyen KB, Pien GC, Cousens LP, Salazar-Mather TP. Natural killer cells in antiviral defense: function and regulation by innate cytokines. Annu Rev Immunol 1999; 17:189220.
  • 94
    Waldmann T. The contrasting roles of IL-2 and IL-15 in the life and death of lymphocytes: implications for the immunotherapy of rheumatological diseases. Arthritis Res 2002; 4 (Suppl. 3):S1617.
  • 95
    Trinchieri G, Wysocka M, D'Andrea A et al. Natural killer cell stimulatory factor (NKSF) or interleukin-12 is a key regulator of immune response and inflammation. Prog Growth Factor Res 1992; 4:35568.
  • 96
    Muller-Trutwin M, Hosmalin A. Role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells in anti-HIV innate immunity. Immunol Cell Biol 2005; 83:57883.
  • 97
    Smit JJ, Rudd BD, Lukacs NW. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells inhibit pulmonary immunopathology and promote clearance of respiratory syncytial virus. J Exp Med 2006; 203:11539.
  • 98
    Yoneyama H, Matsuno K, Toda E et al. Plasmacytoid DCs help lymph node DCs to induce anti-HSV CTLs. J Exp Med 2005; 202:42535.
  • 99
    Bandyopadhyay S, Perussia B, Trinchieri G, Miller DS, Starr SE. Requirement for HLA-DR+ accessory cells in natural killing of cytomegalovirus-infected fibroblasts. J Exp Med 1986; 164:18095.
  • 100
    Feldman M, Howell D, Fitzgerald-Bocarsly P. Interferon-alpha-dependent and -independent participation of accessory cells in natural killer cell-mediated lysis of HSV-1-infected fibroblasts. J Leukoc Biol 1992; 52:47382.
  • 101
    Fitzgerald-Bocarsly P, Feldman M, Curl S, Schnell J, Denny T. Positively selected Leu-11a (CD16+) cells require the presence of accessory cells or factors for the lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected fibroblasts but not herpes simplex virus-infected Raji. J Immunol 1989; 143:131826.
  • 102
    Oh SH, Bandyopadhyay S, Miller DS, Starr SE. Cooperation between CD16(Leu-11b)+ NK cells and HLA-DR+ cells in natural killing of herpesvirus-infected fibroblasts. J Immunol 1987; 139:2799802.
  • 103
    Perussia B, Fanning V, Trinchieri G. A leukocyte subset bearing HLA-DR antigens is responsible for in vitro alpha interferon production in response to viruses. Nat Immun Cell Growth Regul 1985; 4:12037.
  • 104
    Tomescu C, Chehimi J, Maino VC, Montaner LJ. NK Cell lysis of HIV-1-infected autologous CD4 primary T cells: requirement for IFN-mediated NK activation by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. J Immunol 2007; 179:2097104.
  • 105
    Evans DT, Serra-Moreno R, Singh RK, Guatelli JC. BST-2/tetherin: a new component of the innate immune response to enveloped viruses. Trends Microbiol 2010; 18:38896.
  • 106
    Tokarev A, Skasko M, Fitzpatrick K, Guatelli J. Antiviral activity of the interferon-induced cellular protein BST-2/tetherin. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2009; 25:1197210.
  • 107
    Argyris EG, Acheampong E, Wang F et al. The interferon-induced expression of APOBEC3G in human blood–brain barrier exerts a potent intrinsic immunity to block HIV-1 entry to central nervous system. Virology 2007; 367:44051.
  • 108
    Tanaka Y, Marusawa H, Seno H et al. Anti-viral protein APOBEC3G is induced by interferon-alpha stimulation in human hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006; 341:3149.
  • 109
    Li Q, Estes JD, Schlievert PM et al. Glycerol monolaurate prevents mucosal SIV transmission. Nature 2009; 458:10348.
  • 110
    Biasin M, Piacentini L, Lo Caputo S et al. TLR activation pathways in HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals. J Immunol 2010; 184:27107.
  • 111
    Herbeuval JP, Shearer GM. HIV-1 immunopathogenesis: how good interferon turns bad. Clin Immunol 2007; 123:1218.
  • 112
    Sirianni MC, Mezzaroma I, Aiuti F, Moretta A. Analysis of the cytolytic activity mediated by natural killer cells from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in response to phytohemagglutinin or anti-CD16 monoclonal antibody. Eur J Immunol 1994; 24:18748.
  • 113
    Hu PF, Hultin LE, Hultin P et al. Natural killer cell immunodeficiency in HIV disease is manifest by profoundly decreased numbers of CD16+CD56+ cells and expansion of a population of CD16dimCD56– cells with low lytic activity. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1995; 10:33140.
  • 114
    Lucia B, Jennings C, Cauda R, Ortona L, Landay AL. Evidence of a selective depletion of a CD16+ CD56+ CD8+ natural killer cell subset during HIV infection. Cytometry 1995; 22:105.
  • 115
    Ullum H, Gotzsche PC, Victor J, Dickmeiss E, Skinhoj P, Pedersen BK. Defective natural immunity: an early manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Exp Med 1995; 182:78999.
  • 116
    Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S et al. The decreased expression of Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer-cell subsets associated with high levels of HIV-1 viremia. Blood 2009; 114:382230.
  • 117
    Brunetta E, Hudspeth KL, Mavilio D. Pathologic natural killer cell subset redistribution in HIV-1 infection: new insights in pathophysiology and clinical outcomes. J Leukoc Biol 2010; 88:111930.
  • 118
    Hong HS, Eberhard JM, Keudel P et al. Phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets contribute to the expansion of CD56-/CD16+ natural killer cells in HIV infection. AIDS 2010; 24:182334.
  • 119
    De Maria A, Fogli M, Costa P et al. The impaired NK cell cytolytic function in viremic HIV-1 infection is associated with a reduced surface expression of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp46, NKp30 and NKp44). Eur J Immunol 2003; 33:24108.
  • 120
    Mavilio D, Benjamin J, Daucher M et al. Natural killer cells in HIV-1 infection: dichotomous effects of viremia on inhibitory and activating receptors and their functional correlates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003; 100:150116.
  • 121
    Fogli M, Costa P, Murdaca G et al. Significant NK cell activation associated with decreased cytolytic function in peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected patients. Eur J Immunol 2004; 34:231321.
  • 122
    Alter G, Altfeld M. NK cell function in HIV-1 infection. Curr Mol Med 2006; 6:6219.
  • 123
    Vieillard V, Fausther-Bovendo H, Samri A, Debre P. Specific phenotypic and functional features of natural killer cells from HIV-infected long-term nonprogressors and HIV controllers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 53:56473.
  • 124
    O'Connell KA, Han Y, Williams TM, Siliciano RF, Blankson JN. Role of natural killer cells in a cohort of elite suppressors: low frequency of the protective KIR3DS1 allele and limited inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in vitro. J Virol 2009; 83:502834.
  • 125
    Martin MP, Gao X, Lee JH et al. Epistatic interaction between KIR3DS1 and HLA-B delays the progression to AIDS. Nat Genet 2002; 31:42934.
  • 126
    Liu J, Keele BF, Li H et al. Low-dose mucosal simian immunodeficiency virus infection restricts early replication kinetics and transmitted virus variants in rhesus monkeys. J Virol 2010; 84:1040612.
  • 127
    Kramer HB, Lavender KJ, Qin L et al. Elevation of intact and proteolytic fragments of acute phase proteins constitutes the earliest systemic antiviral response in HIV-1 infection. PLoS Pathog 2010; 6:e1000893.
  • 128
    Stacey AR, Norris PJ, Qin L et al. Induction of a striking systemic cytokine cascade prior to peak viremia in acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, in contrast to more modest and delayed responses in acute hepatitis B and C virus infections. J Virol 2009; 83:371933.
  • 129
    Nelson PW, Mittler JE, Perelson AS. Effect of drug efficacy and the eclipse phase of the viral life cycle on estimates of HIV viral dynamic parameters. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001; 26:40512.
  • 130
    Biasin M, Clerici M, Piacentini L. Innate immunity in resistance to HIV infection. J Infect Dis 2010; 202 (Suppl. 3):S3615.
  • 131
    Ganusov VV, De Boer RJ. Estimating costs and benefits of CTL escape mutations in SIV/HIV infection. PLoS Comput Biol 2006; 2:e24.
  • 132
    Lopez M, Soriano V, Benito JM. Escape mutations in HIV infection and its impact on CD8+ T cell responses. Curr Mol Med 2007; 7:44658.
  • 133
    McNeil AC, Shupert WL, Iyasere CA et al. High-level HIV-1 viremia suppresses viral antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98:1387883.
  • 134
    Selliah N, Shackelford J, Wang JF, Traynor F, Yin J, Finkel TH. T cell signaling and apoptosis in HIV disease. Immunol Res 2003; 27:24760.
  • 135
    Finkel TH, Banda NK. Indirect mechanisms of HIV pathogenesis: how does HIV kill T cells? Curr Opin Immunol 1994; 6:60515.
  • 136
    Finkel TH, Tudor-Williams G, Banda NK et al. Apoptosis occurs predominantly in bystander cells and not in productively infected cells of HIV- and SIV-infected lymph nodes. Nat Med 1995; 1:12934.
  • 137
    Giri MS, Nebozyhn M, Raymond A et al. Circulating monocytes in HIV-1-infected viremic subjects exhibit an antiapoptosis gene signature and virus- and host-mediated apoptosis resistance. J Immunol 2009; 182:445970.
  • 138
    Muthumani K, Choo AY, Premkumar A et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr-regulated cell death: insights into mechanism. Cell Death Differ 2005; 12 (Suppl. 1):96270.
  • 139
    Reynolds MR, Rakasz E, Skinner PJ et al. CD8+ T-lymphocyte response to major immunodominant epitopes after vaginal exposure to simian immunodeficiency virus: too late and too little. J Virol 2005; 79:922835.