Cellulose acetate (CA) beads are often used for leucocyte apheresis therapy against inflammatory bowel disease. In order to clarify the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of CA, global analysis of the molecules generated in blood by the interaction with CA beads was performed in this study. An activated medium was collected from whole blood that had been preincubated with CA beads, and the effects of the CA-activated medium on leucocyte function were investigated. Fresh blood was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interferon (IFN)-β in the presence of the activated medium, and levels of chemokines and cytokines, including CXCL10 (IFN-inducible protein-10), and phosphorylated STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1), which is known to be essential for CXCL10 production in leucocytes, were measured. IFN-β- or LPS-induced CXCL10 production, expression of CXCL10 mRNA and phosphorylation of STAT1 were significantly reduced in the presence of the medium pretreated with CA beads compared with the control without the CA bead treatment. The factors inhibiting CXCL10 production were identified as the C3 and C4 fragments by mass spectrometry. The monomeric C3bi and C4b proteins were abundant in the medium pretreated with CA beads. Furthermore, purified C3bi and C4b were found to inhibit IFN-β-induced CXCL10 production and STAT1 phosphorylation. Thus, STAT1-mediated CXCL10 production induced by stimulation with LPS or IFN was potently inhibited by monomeric C3bi and C4b generated by the interaction of blood with CA beads. These mechanisms mediated by monomeric C3bi and C4b may be involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of CA.