Immunology in the Clinic Review Series; focus on host responses: invariant natural killer T cell activation following transplantation

Authors

  • J.-P. Jukes,

    1. Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford,
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  • N. D. Jones

    Corresponding author
    1. Transplantation Research Immunology Group, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK
      N. Jones, Senior Lecturer, MRC Centre of Immune Regulation, School of Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. Email: n.d.jones@bham.ac.uk
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N. Jones, Senior Lecturer, MRC Centre of Immune Regulation, School of Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. Email: n.d.jones@bham.ac.uk

Abstract

OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES

Allergy, Metabolic Diseases, Cancer, Autoinflammatory Diseases, Type 1 diabetes and viruses.

Summary

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been shown to play a key role in the regulation of immunity in health and disease. However, iNKT cell responses have also been found to influence both rejection and the induction of tolerance following transplantation of allogeneic cells or organs. Although a number of mechanisms have been identified that lead to iNKT cell activation, how iNKT cells are activated following transplantation remains unknown. This review will attempt to identify potential mechanisms of iNKT cell activation in the context of transplantation by applying knowledge garnered from other disease situations. Furthermore, we put forward a novel mechanism of iNKT cell activation which we believe may be the dominant mechanism responsible for iNKT activation in this setting, i.e. bystander activation by interleukin-2 secreted by recently activated conventional T cells.

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