Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on cancer: double trouble for tumours: bi-functional and redirected T cells as effective cancer immunotherapies
Article first published online: 11 JAN 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2012 British Society for Immunology
Clinical & Experimental Immunology
Volume 167, Issue 2, pages 216–225, February 2012
How to Cite
Marr, L. A., Gilham, D. E., Campbell, J. D. M. and Fraser, A. R. (2012), Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on cancer: double trouble for tumours: bi-functional and redirected T cells as effective cancer immunotherapies. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 167: 216–225. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2011.04517.x
- Issue published online: 11 JAN 2012
- Article first published online: 11 JAN 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 31 OCT 2011 10:32AM EST
- Accepted for publication 24 October 2011
- T cell therapy
OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES
Metabolic Diseases, Host Responses, Allergies, Autoinflammatory Diseases, Type 1 diabetes and viruses.
Cancer is one of the most important pathological conditions facing mankind in the 21st century, and is likely to become the most important cause of death as improvements continue in health, diet and life expectancy. The immune response is responsible for controlling nascent cancer through immunosurveillance. If tumours escape this control, they can develop into clinical cancer. Although surgery and chemo- or radiotherapy have improved survival rates significantly, there is a drive to reharness immune responses to treat disease. As T cells are one of the key immune cells in controlling cancer, research is under way to enhance their function and improve tumour targeting. This can be achieved by transduction with tumour-specific T cell receptor (TCR) or chimaeric antigen receptors (CAR) to generate redirected T cells. Virus-specific cells can also be transduced with TCR or CAR to create bi-functional T cells with specificity for both virus and tumour. In this review we outline the development and optimization of redirected and bi-functional T cells, and outline the results from current clinical trials using these cells. From this we discuss the challenges involved in generating effective anti-tumour responses while avoiding concomitant damage to normal tissues and organs.