Current address: Unit for Molecular Immunology and Inflammation, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
Immunology in the clinic review series: focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: the role of viruses in type 1 diabetes: a difficult dilemma
Article first published online: 2 MAR 2012
© 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology
Clinical & Experimental Immunology
Volume 168, Issue 1, pages 5–11, April 2012
How to Cite
Coppieters, K. T., Wiberg, A., Tracy, S. M. and von Herrath, M. G. (2012), Immunology in the clinic review series: focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: the role of viruses in type 1 diabetes: a difficult dilemma. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 168: 5–11. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2011.04554.x
- Issue published online: 2 MAR 2012
- Article first published online: 2 MAR 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 28 DEC 2011 04:51PM EST
- Accepted for publication 19 December 2011
- beta cells;
- type 1 diabetes;
OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES
Metabolic diseases, host responses, cancer, autoinflammatory diseases, allergy.
Convincing evidence now indicates that viruses are associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) development and progression. Human enteroviruses (HEV) have emerged as prime suspects, based on detection frequencies around clinical onset in patients and their ability to rapidly hyperglycaemia trigger in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. Whether or not HEV can truly cause islet autoimmunity or, rather, act by accelerating ongoing insulitis remains a matter of debate. In view of the disease's globally rising incidence it is hypothesized that improved hygiene standards may reduce the immune system's ability to appropriately respond to viral infections. Arguments in favour of and against viral infections as major aetiological factors in T1D will be discussed in conjunction with potential pathological scenarios. More profound insights into the intricate relationship between viruses and their autoimmunity-prone host may lead ultimately to opportunities for early intervention through immune modulation or vaccination.