Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: how viral infections modulate beta cell function
Article first published online: 2 MAR 2012
© 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology
Clinical & Experimental Immunology
Volume 168, Issue 1, pages 24–29, April 2012
How to Cite
Grieco, F. A., Sebastiani, G., Spagnuolo, I., Patti, A. and Dotta, F. (2012), Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: how viral infections modulate beta cell function. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 168: 24–29. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2011.04556.x
- Issue published online: 2 MAR 2012
- Article first published online: 2 MAR 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 28 DEC 2011 04:51PM EST
- Accepted for publication 19 December 2011
- viruses/viral immunity
OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES
Metabolic diseases, host responses, cancer, autoinflammatory diseases, allergy.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a multi-factorial immune-mediated disease characterized by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic islet beta cells in genetically susceptible individuals. Epidemiological evidence has also documented the constant rise in the incidence of T1DM worldwide, with viral infections representing one of the candidate environmental risk factors identified by several independent studies. In fact, epidemiological data showed that T1DM incidence increases after epidemics due to enteroviruses and that enteroviral RNA can be detected in the blood of >50% of T1DM patients at the time of disease onset. Furthermore, both in-vitro and ex-vivo studies have shown that viruses can infect pancreatic beta cells with consequent effects ranging from functional damage to cell death.