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Keywords:

  • arthritis;
  • heat shock protein;
  • mucosal;
  • peptide;
  • therapy

Summary

Mucosal administration of an antigen eliciting bystander suppression at the site of inflammation results in effective antigen-specific immunotherapy for autoimmune diseases. Heat shock proteins are bystander antigens that are effective in peptide-specific immunotherapy in both experimental and human autoimmune disease. The efficacy of preventive peptide immunotherapy is increased by enhancing peptide-specific immune responses with proinflammatory agents. Combining peptide-specific immunotherapy with general suppression of inflammation may improve its therapeutic effect.