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Keywords:

  • dendritic cells;
  • idiotype;
  • immunotherapy;
  • multiple myeloma;
  • tumour lysate

Summary

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells and are the mediators of T cell immunity. Many investigators have explored the potential of using DCs as a vaccine for tumour-derived antigens in immunotherapy of B cell malignancies, and the results have been disappointing. To search for better tumour antigens to improve the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy in myeloma, we evaluated and compared the efficacy of the vaccination of DCs pulsed with idiotype (Id) or tumour lysate in the 5TGM1 myeloma mouse model. Our results showed that Id- or tumour lysate-pulsed DC vaccines protected mice efficiently against developing myeloma, retarded tumour growth, induced tumour regression against established tumour and protected surviving mice from tumour rechallenge. The therapeutic responses were associated with an induction of strong humoral immune responses, including anti-Id or anti-lysate antibodies, and cellular immune responses including myeloma-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, CD4+ type 1 T helper cells and memory T cells in mice receiving Id- or tumour lysate-pulsed DC vaccines. In addition, our studies showed that tumour lysate-pulsed DCs were more potent vaccines than the Id-pulsed DC vaccines to promote anti-tumour immunity in the model. This information will be important for improving the strategies of DC-based immunotherapy for patients with myeloma and other B cell tumours.