• autoimmunity;
  • CTLA4;
  • diabetes;
  • human;
  • gene expression


The mRNA levels of a set of immune-related genes were analysed with peripheral blood samples from at-risk, new-onset and long-term type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients, in comparison to those from healthy controls. The selected set includes T lymphocyte genes [CD3G and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4)], B lymphocyte genes (CD19 and CD20) and myeloid cell-related genes [CD11b, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-9, arginase (ARG1)]. Also included is a subset of the S100 family members that has been documented recently as regulatory elements of innate immunity. Samples from patients with long-term T1D had a reduced level of mRNA for most of selected innate and adaptive immune genes. No such reduction was detected in samples collected from at-risk or new-onset T1D patients. Analyses of regulatory gene expression ratios revealed a dynamic disproportion of CTLA4 versus CD3G expression in samples from at-risk, new-onset and long-term T1D patients. These changes could serve as immunological biomarkers for the status of the immune system during T1D progression and therapeutic interventions.