This document has been prepared by an ICSH Task Force as a proposed ICSH Standard for Blood Specimen Collection for Reference Values. The procedures described are a model for standardization of blood specimen collection either for people confined to bed, or for those who are ambulant; they are intended for obtaining reference values using the principles described in the ICSH paper on the Theory of Reference Values (Clin. lab. Haemat.3, 369–373, 1981). The document is based on recommendations by the Committee on Reference Values of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology as published in Scand. J. clin. lab. Invest. (35, Suppl. 144, 39–43, 1975); it has been prepared in collaboration with the Panel on the Theory of Reference Values of the Scientific Committee of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). The responsible authorities of ICSH and IFCC have proposed that it should be the basis for joint recommendations by both organizations.