SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Abe, T., Furuhashi, N., Yamaya, Y., Wada, Y., Hoshiai, A. & Suzuki, M. (1977) Correlation between climacteric symptoms and serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 129, 6567.
  • Adair. E.R. (1977) Skin, preoptic, and core temperatures influence behavioral thermoregulation. Journal of Applied Physiology, 42, 559564.
  • Aghajanian. G.K. (1978) Tolerance of locus coeruleus neurons to morphine and suppression of withdrawal response by clonidone. Nature, 276, 186188.
  • Aksel, S., Schomberg, D. W., Tyrey, L. & Hammond, C. B. (1976) Vasomotor symptoms, serum estrogens, and gonadotropin levels in surgical menopause. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 126, 165169.
  • Anton-Tay, F. & Wurtman, R.J. (1968) Norepinephrine: turnover in rat brains after gonadectomy. Science, 159, 12451246.
  • Appleby, B. (1962) Norethisterone in the control of menopausal symptoms. Lancet, i, 407409.
  • Arbilla, S. & Langer, S.Z. (1978) Morphine and beta-endorphin inhibit release of noradrenaline from cerebral cortex but not of dopamine from rat striatum. Nature, 271, 559561.
  • Baird, D.T. & Guevara. A. (1969) Concentration of unconjugated estrone and estradiol in peripheral plasma in non-pregnant women throughout the menstrual cycle, castrate and post-menopausal women and in men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 29, 149156.
  • Bapna, J., Neff, M.H. & Costa, E.A. (1971) A method for studying norepinephrine and serotonin metabolism in small regions of rat brain: effect of ovariectomy on amine metabolism in anterior and posterior hypothalamus. Endocrinology, 89, 13451349.
  • Barraclough, C.A. & Wise, P.M. (1982) The role of catecholamines in the regulation of pituitary luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone secretion. Endocrine Reviews, 3, 91119.
  • Barry, J. (1977) Immunofluorescence study of LRF neurons in primates. Cell Tissue Research, 164, 163178.
  • Barry, J. & Carett, B. (1975) Immunofluorescence study of LRF neurons in man. Cell Tissue Research, 164, 163178.
  • Beattie, C.W., Rogers, C.H. & Soyka, L.F. (1972) Influence of ovariectomy and ovarian steroids on hypothalamic tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the rat. Endocrinology, 91, 276279.
  • Benzinger. T.H. (1969) Heat regulation: homeostasis of central temperature in man. Physiology Reviews, 49, 671759.
  • Bhanot, R. & Wilkinson, M. (1983) Opiatergic control of LH secretion is eliminated by gonadectomy. Endocrinology, 112, 399403.
  • Bhattacharya, A.N., Dierschke, D.J., Yamaji, T. & Knobil, E. (1972) The pharmacologic blockade of the circhoral mode of LH secretion in the ovariectomized rhesus monkey. Endocrinology, 90, 778786.
  • Bird, S.J. & Kuhan, M.J. (1979) Iontophorctic application of opiates to the locus coeruleus. Brain Research, 122, 523533.
  • Blankstein, J., Reyes, F.I., Winter, J.S.D. & Fainan, C. (1981) Endorphins and the regulation of the human menstrual cycle. Clinical Endocrinology, 14, 287294.
  • Brown, M. (1981) Bombesin, somatostatin, and related peptides: actions on thermoregulation. Federation Proceedings, 40, 27652768.
  • Brown, M., Nicholas, L. & Rivier, J. (1981) Somatostatin-28, somatostatin-14 and somatostatin analogs: effects on thermoregulation. Brain Research, 214, 127135.
  • Bullock, J.L., Massey, F.M. & Gambrell, R.D. (1975) Use of medroxyprogesterone acetate to prevent menopausal symptoms. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 46, 165168.
  • Carmel, P.W., Araki, S. & Feran, M. (1976) Pituitary stalk portal blood collection in rhesus monkeys: Evidence for pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Endocrinology, 99, 243248.
  • Casper, R.F. & Yen, S.S.C. (1981) Menopausal flushes: Effect of pituitary gonadotropin desensitization by a potent luteinizing hormone-releasing factor agonist. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 53, 10561058.
  • Casper, R.F., Yen, S.S.C. & Wilkes, M.M. (1979) Menopausal flushes: a neuroendocrine link with pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion. Science, 205, 823825.
  • Cetel, N.S. & Yen, S.S.C. (1985) The attenuation of pulsatile gonadotropin secretion and flush episodes by a progestogen in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, (in press).
  • Chakravarti, F., Collins, W.P., Newton. J.R., Oram, B.H. & Studd, J.W.W. (1977) Endocrine changes and symptomatology after oophorectomy in premenopausal women. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 84, 769775.
  • Cicero, T.J., Schainker, B.A. & Meyer, R.R. (1979) Endogenous opioids participate in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-luteinizing hormone axis and testosterone's negative feedback control of luteinizing hormone. Endocrinology, 104, 12861291.
  • Clark, W.B. & Ponder, G.W. (1980) Thermoregulatory effects of (D-ala2)-methionine-enkephalinamide in the cat. Evidence for multiple naloxone-sensitive opioid receptors. Brain Research Bulletin, 5, 415420.
  • Clayden, J.R., Bell, J.W. & Pollard, P. (1974) Menopausal flushing: Double blind trial of a non-hormonal medication. British Medical Journal, i, 409412.
  • Coope, J., Williams, S. & Patterson, J.S. (1978) A study of the effectiveness of propranolol in menopausal hot flushes. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 85, 472475.
  • Crawford, J.S. (1977) Hot flushes and cold turkey. British Medical Journal, i, 1599.
  • Defazio, J., Meldrum, D.R., Laufer, L., Vale, W., Rivier, J., Lu, J.K.H. & Judd, H.L. (1983) Induction of hot flashes in premenopausal women treated with a long acting GnRH agonist. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 56, 445448.
  • Defazio, J., Verheucen, C., Chetkowski, R., Nass, T., Judd, H.L. & Meldrum, D.R. (1984) The effects of naloxone on hot flashes and gonadotropin secretion in postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 58, 578581.
  • Delitala, G., Grossman, A. & Besser, G.M. (1981) Changes in pituitary hormone levels induced by met-enkephalin in man-the role of dopamine. Life Sciences, 29, 15371544.
  • Demorsier, G. & Gauthier, G. (1963) La dysplasie olfactorgenitale. Pathological Biology (Paris), 11, 1267.
  • Donoso, A.I., Stephano, I.J.E., Biscardi, A.M. & Cukier, J. (1967) Effects of castration on hypothalamic catecholamines. American Journal of Physiology, 212, 737739.
  • Dupont, A., Ardin, N., Cusan, L., Merand, Y., Lebrie, F. & Vaudry, H. (1980) Beta-endorphin and met-enkephalins: their distribution, modulation by estrogens and haloperidol, and role in neuroendocrine control. Federation Proceedings, 39, 25442550.
  • Dyer, R.G. & Dyball, R.E.J. (1974) Evidence for a direct effect of LRF and TRF on single unit activity in the rostral hypothalamus. Nature, 252, 486488.
  • Eaton, A.C & McGuire, N. (1983) Cyproterone acetate in treatment of post-orchidectomy hot flushes. Double-blind cross-over trial. Lancet, ii, 13361337.
  • Edington, R.F., Chagnon, J.-P. & Steinberg, W.M. (1980) Clonidine (Dixarit) for menopausal flushing. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 123, 2326.
  • Erkkola, R., Iisalo, E. & Runnonen, R. (1973) The effect propranolol and oxazepam on some vegetative menopausal symptoms. Annals of Clinical Research, 5, 208213.
  • Erlik, Y., Meldrum, D.R., Lagasse, L.D. & Judd, H.L. (1981) Effect of megestrol acetate on flushing and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. Maturitas, 3, 167172.
  • Farsang, C. & Kunos, G. (1979) Naloxone reverses the antihypertensive effect of clonidine. British Journal of Pharmacology, 67, 161164.
  • Fielding, S., Wilker, J., Hynes, M., Szewczak, M., Novick. W.J. Jr. & Lal, H. (1978) A comparison of clonidine with morphine for antinociceptive and antiwithdrawal actions. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 207, 899905.
  • Francesconi, R. & Mager, M. (1981) Thermoregulatory effects of centrally administered Bombesin, Bradykinin and methionine-enkephalin. Brain Research Bulletin, 7, 6368.
  • Fuxe, K., Lofstrom, A., Eneroth, P., Gustafsson, J.-A., Skett, P., Hokfelt, T., Wiesel, F.-A. & Agnati, L. (1977) Involvement of central catecholamines in the feedback actions of 17 beta-estradiolbenzoate on luteinizing hormone secretion in the ovariectomized female rat. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2, 203225.
  • Gale, C.C. (1973) Neuroendocrine aspects of thermoregulation. Annual Review of Physiology, 35, 391430.
  • Gambone, J., Meldrum, D., Lanfer, L., Chang, J., Lu. L. & Judd. H. (1982) Further delineation of hypothalamic dysfunction responsible for menopausal hot flushes. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the Society of Gynaecological Investigation, Dallas, Texas. March 24–27. Abstract 60.
  • Genazzani, A.R., Petraglia, F., Facchinetti, F., Facchini, V., Volpe, A. & Allessandrini, G. (1984) Increase of pro-opiomelanocortin-related peptides during subjective menopausal flushes. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 149, 775.
  • Gibbs, D.M. & Vale, W. (1982) Presence of corticotropin-releasing factor-like immunoreactivity in hypophyseal portal blood. Endocrinology. 111, 1418.
  • Gilbert, T.M. & Blatteis, C.M. (1977) Hypothalamic thermoregulatory pathways In the rat. Journal of Applied Physiology, 43, 770777.
  • Ginsburg, J. & O'Reilly, B. (1983) Climacteric flushing in a man. British Medical Journal. 287, 262.
  • Ginsburg, J., Swinhoe, J. & O'Riley. B. (1981) Cardiovascular responses during the menopausal hot flush. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 88, 925930.
  • Gold, M.S., Redmond, D.E. jr & Kleber, H.D. (1978a) Clonidine in opiate withdrawal. Lancet, i, 929930.
  • Gold, M.S., Redmond, D.E. jr & Kleber, H.D. (1978b) Clonidine blocks acute opiale-withdrawal symptoms. Lancet, ii, 599602.
  • Goldsmith, P.C., Lamberts, R. & Bregina, L.R. (1983) Gonadotropin releasing hormone neurons and pathways in the primate hypothalamus and forebrain. In Neuroendocrine Aspects of Reproduction (Ed. R. L.Norman) pp. 745. Academic Press. New York .
  • Goldstein, D.S., Levinson, P. & Keiser, H.R. (1983) Plasma and urinary catecholamines during the human ovulatory cycle. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 146, 824829.
  • Grossman, A., Moult, P.J.A., Gaillard, R.C., Delitala, G., Toff, W.D., Rees, L.H. & Besser, G.M. (1981) The opioid control of LH and FSH release: effects of a met-enkephalin analogue and naloxone. Clinical Endocrinology, 14, 4147.
  • Himmelsbach, C.K. (1971) The morphine abstinence syndrome, its nature and treatment. Annals of Internal Medicine, 15, 829839.
  • Hunyor, S.N., Hansson, L., Harrison, T.S. & Hoobler, S.W. (1973) Effects of clonidine withdrawal: possible mechanisms and suggestions for management. British Medical Journal, ii, 209211.
  • Hutton, J.D., Murray, M.A.F., Jacobs, H.S. & James, V.H.T. (1976) Relationship between plasma oestrone and oestradiol and climacteric symptoms. Lancet, i, 678681.
  • Jaszmann, L.J.B. (1976) Epideminology of the climacteric syndrome. In The Management of the Menopause and Postmenopausal years. Proceedings of the International Symposium, London, November 24–26, 1975. (Ed. S.Campbell) pp. 1124, University Park Press, Baltimore .
  • Kalra, S.P. & Simpkins, J.W. (1981) Evidence for noradrenergic mediation of opioid effects on luteinizing hormone secretion. Endocrinology, 109, 776782.
  • Kato, J. (1978) Brain receptors for sex steroid hormones and their characterization and functional implications. In Neural Hormones and Reproduction, (Ed. D. E.Scott, G. P.Kozlowski & A.Weindel) pp. 286301.
  • Kinoshita, F., Nakai, Y., Katakami, H., Kato, Y., Yajima, H. & Imura, H. (1980) Effect of beta-endorphin n pulsatile luteinizing hormone release in conscious castrated rats. Life Sciences, 27, 843846.
  • Korf, J., Bunney, B.S. & Aghajani, G.K. (1974) Noradrenergic neurons: Morphine inhibition of spontaneous activity. European Journal of Pharmacology, 25, 165169.
  • Kunos, G., Farsang, C. & Ramirez-Gonzales, M.D. (1981) Beta-endorphin: Possible involvement in the antihypertensive effect of central alpha-receptor activation. Science, 211, 8284.
  • Laverty, R. & Roth, R.H. (1980) Clonidine reverses the increased norepinephrine turnover during morphine withdrawal in rats. Brain Research, 182, 482485.
  • Levine, J.D., Gordon, N.C. & Fields, H.L. (1978) The mechanism of placebo analgesia. Lancet, ii, 654657.
  • Lightman, S.L., Jacobs, H.S., Maguire, A.K., McGarrick, G. & Jeffcoate, S.L. (1981a) Climacteric flushing: Clinical and endocrine response to infusion of naloxone. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 88, 919924.
  • Lightman, S.L., Jacobs, H.S., Maguire, A.K., Mcgarrick, G. & Jeffcoate, S.L. (1981b) Constancy of opioid control of luteinizing hormone in different pathophysiological states. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 52, 12601263.
  • Lightman, S.L. & Linsell, C. Chronobiology of postmenopausal flushing. Journal of Physiology (London), in press.
  • Lin, M.T., Chandra, A. & Jou, J.J. (1980) Angiotensin II inhibits both heat production and heat loss mechanisms in the rat. Canadian Journal of Physiological Pharmacology, 58, 909914.
  • Marshall, P.E. & Goldsmith, P.C. (1980) Neuroregulatory and neuroendocrine GnRH pathways in the hypothalamus and forebrain of the baboon. Brain Research, 193, 353372.
  • McKinlay, S.M. & Jeffreys, M. (1974) The menopausal syndrome. British Journal of Preventive Social Medicine, 28, 108114.
  • Meldrum, D.R., Erlik, Y., Lu. J.H.K., & Judd, H.L. (1981) Objectively recorded hot flushes in patients with pituitary insufficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 52, 684687.
  • Meldrum, D.R., Tataryn, I.V., Frumar, A.M., Erlik. Y., Lu, K.H. & Judd. H.L. (1980) Gonadotropins. estrogens and adrenal steroids during the menopausal hot flush. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 50, 685689.
  • Menon, V., Logan Edwards, R., Lynch, S.S. & Butt, W.R. (1983) LH-RH analogue in treatment of hypergonadotropic amenorrhea. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 90, 539542.
  • Molnar, G. W. (1974) Body temperatures during menopausal hot flushes. Journal of Applied Physiology. 38, 499503.
  • Molnar, G.W. (1981) Menopausal hot flushes: their cycles and relation to air temperature. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 57 (Suppl.), 52S55S.
  • Moore, R.Y. & Bloom, F.E. (1979) Central catecholamine neuron systems: anatomy and physiology of the norepinephrine norepinephrine systems. Annual Reviews in Neuroscience, 2, 113168.
  • Morley, J.E., Levine, A.S., Martin, M.M., Grace, M. & Kneip, J. (1982) Neuropeptides and thermoregulation: the interactions of bombesin, neurotensin, TRH, somatostatin, naloxone and prostaglandins. Peptides, 3, 16.
  • Moult, P.J.A., Grossman, A., Evans, J.M., Rees, L.H. & Besser, G.M. (1981) The effect of naloxone on pulsatile gonadotropin release in normal subjects. Clinical Endocrinology, 14, 321324.
  • Mulley, G., Mitchell, J.R.A. & Tattersal, R.B. (1977) Hot flushes after hypophysectomy. British Medical Journal, ii, 1062.
  • Myers, R.D. & Yaksh, T.C. (1969) Control of body temperature in the unanaesthetized monkey by cholinergic and aminergic systems in the hypothalamus. Journal of Physiology (London), 202, 483500.
  • Neill, J.D., Patton, J.M., Dailey, R.A., Tsou, R.C. & Tindall, G.T. (1977) Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) in pituitary stalk blood of rhesus monkeys: relationship to level of LH release. Endocrinology, 101, 430434.
  • Nesheim, G.-I. & Saetre, T. (1981) Reduction of menopausal hot flushes by methyldopa. A double blind crossover trial. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 20, 413416.
  • Nordin, B.E.C., Jones, M.M., Crilly, R.G., Marshall, D.H. & Brooke, R. (1980) A placebo controlled trial of ethinyl oestradiol and norethisterone in climacteric women. Maturitas, 2, 247251.
  • Paterson, M.E.L. (1982) A randomized double-blind crossover trial into the effect of norethisterone on climacteric symptoms and biochemical profiles. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 89, 464472.
  • Pettibone, D.J. & Mueller, G.P. (1981) Alpha-adrenergic stimulation by clonidine increases plasma concentrations of immunoreactive beta-endorphin in rats. Endocrinology, 109, 798802.
  • Pfaff, D. W. & McEwen, G.W. (1983) Action of estrogens and progestins on nerve cells. Science, 219, 808814.
  • Proppe, S.W. & Gale, C.C. (1970) Endocrine thermoregulatory responses to local hypothalamic warming in unanesthetized baboons. American Journal of Physiology, 219, 202207.
  • Quigley, M.E. & Yen, S.S.C. (1980) The role of endogenous opiates on LH secretion during the menstrual cycle. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 51, 179181.
  • Quigley, M.E., Sheehan, K.L., Casper, R.F. & Yen, S.S.C. (1980a) Evidence of increased dopaminergic and opioid activity in patients with hypothalamic hypogonadotropic amenorrhea. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 50, 949954.
  • Quigley, M.E., Sheehan, K.L., Casper, R.F. & Yen, S.S.C. (1980b) Evidence for an increased opioid inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion in hyperprolactinemic patients with pituitary macroadenoma. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 50, 427430.
  • Reid, J.I., Dargie, J.H., Davies, D.S., Wing, L.M.H., Hamilton, C.A. & Dollery, C.T. (1977a) Clonidine withdrawal in hypertension. Lancet, i, 11711174.
  • Reid, R.L., Quigley, M.E. & Yen, S.S.C. (1983) The disappearance of opioidergic regulation of gonadotropin secretion in postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 57, 11071110.
  • Reid, J.L., Wing, L.M.H., Mathias, C.J., Frankel, H.L. & Neill. E. (1977b) The central hypotensive effect of clonidine. Clinical Pharmacological Therapy, 21, 375381.
  • Reid, R.L., Hoff, J.D., Yen, S.S.C. & Li C.H. (1981) Effects of exogenousβh-endorphin on pituitary hormone secretion and its disappearance rate in normal human subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 52, 11791184.
  • Renaud, L.P., Martin, J.B. & Belzean, P. (1975) Depressant action ofTRH, LH and RF and somatostatin on activity or central neurons. Nature, 255, 233.
  • Ropert, J.F., Quigley, M.E. & Yen, S.S.C. (1981) Endogenous opiates modulate pulsatile luteinizing hormone release in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 52, 583585.
  • Santen, R.J. & Bardin, C.W. (1973) Episodic luteinizing hormone secretion in man. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 52, 26172628.
  • Sar, M. (1984) Estradiol is concentrated in tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons of the hypothalamus. Science, 223, 938940.
  • Sar, M. & Stumpf, W.E. (1981) Central noradrenergic neurone concentrate 3H-oestradiol. Nature, 289, 500501.
  • Sawyer, C.H. (1979) The Seventh Stevenson Lecture. Brain amines and pituitary gonadotropin secretion. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 57, 667680.
  • Schiff, I., Tulchinsky, D., Cramer, D. & Ryan, K. J. (1980) Oral medroxyprogesterone in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Journal of the American Medical Association, 244, 14431445.
  • Schindler, A.E., Muller, D., Keller, E., Goser, R. & Runkel, F. (1979) Studies with clonidine (Dixarit) in menopausal women. Archives of Gynaecology, 227, 341347.
  • Schmitt, H., Ledouarec, J.-C. & Petillot, N. (1974) Antinociceptive effects of some alpha-sympathomimelic agents. Neuropharmacology, 13, 289294.
  • Silverman, A.J., Antunes, J.L., Ferin, M. & Zimmerman, E.A. (1977) The distribution of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in the hypothalamus of the Rhesus monkey, light microscopy studies using immunoperoxidose technique. Endocrinology, 101, 134142.
  • Silverman, A.J., Bajorek, J.G., Lomax, P. & Tataryn, I.V. (1981) Monitoring the pathophysiological correlates of post-menopausal hot flushes. Maturitas, 3, 3946.
  • Simpkins, J.W., Katovich, M.J. & Cheng Song, I. (1983) Similarities between morphine withdrawal in the rat and the menopausal hot flush. Life Sciences, 32, 19571966.
  • Smiles, K.A., Elizondo, R.F. & Barney, C.C. (1976) Sweating responses during changes of hypothalamic temperature in the rhesus monkey. Journal of Applied Physiology, 40, 653657.
  • Sturdee, D.W. & Reece, B.L. (1979) Thermography of menopausal hot flushes. Maturitas, 1, 201205.
  • Swanson, L.W., Sawchenko, P.E., Rivier, J. & Vale, W.W. (1983) Organization of ovine corticotrophin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells and fibers in the rat brain: an immunohistochemical study. Neuroendocrinology, 36, 165171.
  • Sylvester, P.W., Chin, H.T.R. & Meitz, J. (1980) Effects of morphine and naloxone on phasic release of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (40849). Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 162, 207411.
  • Tataryn, I.V., Lomax, P., Bejorack, J.G., Chesarek, W., Meldrum, D.R. & Judd, H.C. (1980) Postmenopausal hot flushes: a disorder of thermoregulation. Maturitas, 2, 101107.
  • Tataryn, I.V., Meldrum, D.R., Lu, K.H., Frumar, A.M. & Judd, H.L. (1979) LH, FSH, and skin temperature during the menopausal hot flash. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 49, 152154.
  • Thompson, B., Hart, S.A. & Durno, D. (1973) Menopausal age and symptomatology in a general practice. Journal of Biosocial Science, 5, 7182.
  • Toivola, P.T. & Gale, C.C. (1970) Effect on temperature of biogenic amine infusion into hypothalamus of baboon. Neuroendocrinology, 6, 210219.
  • Vale, W.W., Rivier, C., Spiess, J., Brown, M.R. & Rivier J. (1984) Corticotropin releasing factor. In Brain Peptides. (Ed. D.Krieger, M.Brownstein & J.Martin) John Wiley & Sons, New York .
  • Vandesande, F., Dierickx, K. & de Mey, J. (1977) The origin of the vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic fibres of the external region of the median eminence of the rat hypophysis. Cell Tissue Research, 180, 443452.
  • Vanvugt, D.A., Sylvester, P.W., Aylswirth, C. & Meites, J. (1982) Counteraction of gonadal steroid inhibition of luteinizing hormone release by naloxone. Neuroendocrinology, 34, 274278.
  • Van Zwieten, P.A. (1977) Antihypertensive action of clonidine (catapresan). Contributions to Nephrology, 3, 200212.
  • Wardlaw, S.L., Wehrenberg, W.B., Ferin, M., Antunes, J.L. & Frantz, A.G. (1982) Effect of sex steroids on beta-endorphin in hypophyseal portal blood. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 55, 877881.
  • Wehrenberg, W.B., Wardlaw, S.L., Frantz, A.G. & Ferin, M. (1982) Beta-endorphin in hypophyseal portal blood: variations throughout the menstrual cycle. Endocrinology, 111, 879883.
  • Weick, R.F. (1978) Acute effects of adrenergic receptor blocking drugs and neuroleptic agents on pulsatile discharges of luteinizing hormones in the ovariectomized rat. Neuroendocrinology, 26, 108117.
  • Wilkes, M.M., Watkins, W.B., Stewart, R.D. & Yen, S.S.C. (1980) Localization and quantitation of β-endorphin in human brain and pituitary. Neuroendocrinology, 30, 113121.
  • Yen, S.S.C. (1977) The biology of menopause. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 18, 287296.
  • Yen, S.S.C., Llerena, L.A., Pearson, O.H. & Littell, A.S. (1970) Disappearance rates of endogenous follicle-stimulating hormone in serum following surgical hypophysectomy in man. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 30, 325329.
  • Yen, S.S.C., Llerena, L.A., Riddle, B. & Pearson, O.H. (1968) Disappearance rates of endogenous luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin in man. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 28, 17631767.
  • Yen, S.S.C., Rebar, R., Vandenberg, G. & Judd, H. (1973) Hypothalamic amenorrhea and hypogonadotro-pinism: Responses to synthetic LRF. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 36, 811816.
  • Yen, S.S.C. & Tsai, C.C. (1971) The effect of ovariectomy on gonadotropin release. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 50, 11491153.
  • Yen, S.S.C., Tsai, C.C., Naftolin, F., Vandenberg, G. & Ajabor, L. (1972) Pulsatile patterns of gonadotropin release in subjects with and without ovarian function. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 34, 671675.
  • Yen, S.S.C., Vandenberg, G., Tdsai, C.C. & Parker, D.C. (1974) Fluctuations of gonadotropins. In Biorhythms and Human Reproduction, (Ed. M.Ferin) pp. 203218. John Wiley and Sons, New York .