The relation of insulin, leptin and IGF-1 to birthweight in offspring of women with type 1 diabetes

Authors

  • R. S. Lindsay,

    Corresponding author
    1. University of Glasgow, Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow,
      R. Lindsay, BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK. Tel.: 0141 2112502; Fax: 0141 2112895; E-mail: r.lindsay@clinmed.gla.ac.uk
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  • B. A. Hamilton,

    1. University Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centre for Reproductive Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh
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  • A. A. Calder,

    1. University Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centre for Reproductive Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh
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  • F. D. Johnstone,

    1. University Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centre for Reproductive Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh
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  • J. D. Walker

    1. Diabetic Department, St John's Hospital at Howden, West Lothian NHS Trust, Livingston, UK
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R. Lindsay, BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK. Tel.: 0141 2112502; Fax: 0141 2112895; E-mail: r.lindsay@clinmed.gla.ac.uk

Summary

objective  Maternal diabetes is associated with excess foetal growth. We have assessed the influence of maternal diabetes on hormones associated with foetal growth and the relationship of these hormones to birthweight.

design  Case–control study.

patients  Singleton offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes (ODM, n = 140) and control mothers (Control, n = 49).

measurements  Birthweight, cord blood insulin, proinsulin, 32–33 split proinsulin, leptin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, cortisol.

results  Maternal diabetes was associated with higher birthweight (ODM 3·80 ± 0·69 kg; Control; 3·56 ± 0·52 kg, P = 0·02) and marked increases in insulin (median [interquartile range]: ODM 110 [60–217] pmol/l; Control 22 [15–37] pmol/l; P < 0·0001) and leptin (ODM 32 [15–60] ng/ml; Control 9 [4–17] ng/ml; P < 0·0001) but no absolute difference in IGF-1 (ODM 7·9 [6·2–9·8] nmol/l, Control 7·5 [6·2–9·8] nmol/l, P = 0·24) or its principle binding protein IGFBP-3 (ODM 1·63 ± 0·38 µg/ml, Control 1·63 ± 0·28 µg/ml; P = 0·12). Individually, insulin, insulin propeptides, leptin, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were significantly (P < 0·05) correlated with birthweight (in ODM and Control). IGF-1 and leptin were positively related to birthweight independently of each other and insulin in both ODM and Control. By contrast, insulin showed independent relationships to birthweight in ODM (P < 0·0001) but not in Control (P = 0·4).

conclusions  Maternal diabetes is associated with marked elevation of insulin and leptin in cord blood of their offspring. Hormonal correlates of birthweight differ between ODM and Control with an independent relationship of insulin to birthweight observed only in ODM.

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