SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Delafontaine, P. (1995) Insulin-like growth factor I and its binding proteins in the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular Research, 30, 825834.
  • 2
    Ito, H., Hiroe, M., Hirata, Y., Tsujino, M., Adachi, S., Shichiri, M., Koike, A., Nogami, A. & Marumo, F. (1993) Insulin like growth factor 1 induces hypertrophy with enhanced expression of muscle specific genes in cultured rat cardiomyocytes. Circulation, 87, 17151721.
  • 3
    Chen, D.B., Wang, L. & Wang, P.H. (2000) Insulin-like growth factor I retards apoptotic signaling induced by ethanol in cardiomyocytes. Life Science, 67, 16831693.
  • 4
    Cittadini, A., Ishiguro, Y., Strömer, H., Spindler, M., Moses, A.C., Clark, R., Douglas, P.S., Ingwall, J.S. & Morgan, J.P. (1998) Insulin-like growth factor-1 but not growth hormone augments mammalian myocardial contractility by sensitizing the myofilament to Ca2+ through a wortmannin-sensitive pathway: studies in rat and ferret isolated muscles. Circulation Research, 83, 5059.
  • 5
    Freestone, N.S., Ribaric, S. & Mason, W.T. (1996) The effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 on adult rat cardiac contractility. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 163, 223229.
  • 6
    Colao, A., Ferone, D., Marzullo, P. & Lombardi, G. (2004) Systemic complications of acromegaly: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management. Endocrine Review, 25, 102152.
  • 7
    Tsukahara, H., Gordienko, D.V., Tonshoff, B., Gelato, M.C. & Goligorsky, M.S. (1994) Direct demonstration of insulin-like growth factor I induced nitric oxide production by endothelial cells. Kidney International, 45, 598604.
  • 8
    Bayes-Genis, A., Conover, C.A. & Schwartz, R.S. (2000) The insulin-like growth factor axis: a review of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Circulation Research, 86, 125130.
  • 9
    Colao, A., Marzullo, P., Di Somma, C. & Lombardi, G. (2001) Growth Hormone and the heart. Clinical Endocrinology, 54, 137154.
  • 10
    Juul, A., Scheike, T., Davidsen, M.J., Gyllenborg, T. & Jorgensen, J.O. (2002) Low serum insulin-like growth factor I is associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease: a population-based case-control study. Circulation, 106, 939944.
  • 11
    Vasan, R.S., Sullivan, L.M., D’Agostino, R.B., Roubenoff, R., Harris, T., Sawyer, D.B., Levy, D. & Wilson, P.W. (2003) Serum insulin-like growth factor I and risk for heart failure in elderly individuals without a previous myocardial infarction: the Framingham Heart Study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 139, 642648.
  • 12
    Laughlin, G.A., Barrett-Connor, E., Criqui, M.H. & Kritz-Silverstein, D. (2004) The prospective association of serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-1 levels with all cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in older adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89, 114120.
  • 13
    Johnsen, S.P., Hundborg, H.H., Sorensen, H.T., Orskov, H., Tjonneland, A., Overvad, K. & Jorgensen, J.O. (2005) Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I-II, and IGF binding protein-3 and risk of ischemic stroke. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90, 59375941.
  • 14
    Denti, L., Annoni, V., Cattadori, E., Salvagnini, M.A., Visioli, S., Merli, M.F., Corradi, F., Ceresini, G., Valenti, G., Hoffman, A.R. & Ceda, G.P. (2004) Insulin-like growth factor 1 as a predictor of ischemic stroke outcome in the elderly. American Journal of Medicine, 117, 312317.
  • 15
    Bondanelli, M., Ambrosio, M.R., Onofri, A., Bergonzoni, A., Lavezzi, S., Zatelli, M.C., Valle, D., Basaglia, N. & Degli Uberti, E.C. (2006) Predictive value of circulating insulin-like growth factor I levels in ischemic stroke outcome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 91, 39283934.
  • 16
    Van Den Beld, A.W., Bots, M.L., Janssen, J.A.M.L.L., Pols, H.A.P., Lamberts, S.W.J. & Grobbee, D.E. (2003) Endogenous hormones and carotid atherosclerosis in elderly men. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157, 2531.
  • 17
    Colao, A., Spiezia, S., Di Somma, C., Pivonello, R., Marzullo, P., Rota, F., Musella, T., Auriemma, R.S., De Martino, M.C. & Lombardi, G. (2005) Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I levels are correlated with the atherosclerotic profile in healthy subjects independently of age. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 28, 440448.
  • 18
    Gillespie, C.M., Merkel, A.L. & Martin, A.A. (1997) Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I and LR3IGF-I on regional blood flow in normal rats. Journal of Endocrinology, 155, 351358.
  • 19
    Galderisi, M., Caso, P., Cicala, S., De Simone, L., Barbieri, M., Vitale, G., De Divitiis, O. & Paolisso, G. (2002) Positive association between circulating free insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and coronary flow reserve in arterial systemic hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension, 15, 766772.
  • 20
    Paolisso, G., Tagliamonte, M.R., Rizzo, M.R., Carella, C., Gambardella, A., Barbieri, M. & Varricchio, M. (1999) Low plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations predict worsening of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in older people. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 47, 13121318.
  • 21
    Clemmons, D.R., Moses, A.C., McKay, M.J., Sommer, A., Rosen, D.M. & Ruckle, J. (2000) The combination of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 reduces insulin requirements in insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes: evidence for in vivo biological activity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85, 15181524.
  • 22
    Sandhu, M.S., Heald, A.H., Gibson, J.M., Cruickshank, J.K., Dunger, D.B. & Wareham, N.J. (2002) Circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I and development of glucose intolerance: a prospective observational study. Lancet, 359, 17401745.
  • 23
    Okura, Y., Brink, M., Zahid, A.A., Anwar, A. & Delafontaine, P. (2001) Decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells in human atherosclerotic plaque. Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 33, 17771789.
  • 24
    Patel, V.A., Zhang, Q.J., Siddle, K., Soos, M.A., Goddard, M., Weissberg, P.L. & Bennett, M.R. (2001) Defect in insulin-like growth factor-1 survival mechanism in atherosclerotic plaque-derived vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by reduced surface binding and. Signaling Circulation Research, 88, 895902.
  • 25
    Anwar, A., Zahid, A.A., Scheidegger, K.J., Brink, M. & Delafontaine, P. (2002) Tumor necrosis factor-α regulates insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 expression in vascular smooth muscle. Circulation, 105, 12201225.
  • 26
    Jia, G., Cheng, G., Soundararajan, K. & Agrawal, D.K. (2007) Insulin-like growth factor-I receptors in atherosclerotic plaques of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis: effect of IL-12 and IFN-γ. American Journal of Physiology Heart Circulation Physiology, 292 (H1051–7), 2003.
  • 27
    Spies, M., Nesic, O., Barrow, R.E., Perez-Polo, J.R. & Herndon, D.N. (2001) Liposomal IGF-1 gene transfer modulates pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in the burn wound. Gene Therapy, 8, 14091415.
  • 28
    Rosén, T. & Bengtsson, B.-A. (1990) Premature cardiovascular mortality in hypopituitarism-a study of 333 consecutive patients. Lancet, 336, 285288.
  • 29
    Erfurth, E.M. & Hagmar, L. (1998) Cardiovascular mortality among pituitary insufficient patients. Clinical Endocrinology, 49, 271272.
  • 30
    Tomlinson, J.W., Holden, N., Hills, Wheatley, R.K., Clayton, K., Bates, R.N. & Sheppard, A.S., M.C.&.Stewart, P.M. (2001) Association between premature mortality and hypopituitarism. West Midlands Prospective Hypopituitary Study Group. Lancet, 357, 425431.
  • 31
    McCallum, R.W., Petrie, J.R., Dominiczak, A.F. & Connell, J.M.C. (2002) Growth hormone deficiency and vascular risk. Clinical Endocrinology, 57, 1124.
  • 32
    Colao, A., Di Somma, C., Savanelli, M.C., De Leo, M. & Lombardi, G. (2006) Beginning to end: cardiovascular implications of growth hormone (GH) deficiency and GH therapy. Growth Hormone IGF Research, 16 (Suppl. A), S41S48.
  • 33
    Despres, J.-P., Lemieux, I. & Prud’homme, D. (2001) Treatment of obesity: need to focus on high risk abdominally obese patients. British Medical Journal, 322, 716720.
  • 34
    Ohlson, L.O., Larsson, B., Svardsudd, K., Welin, L., Eriksson, H., Wilhelmsen, L., Bjorntorp, P. & Tibblin, G. (1985) The influence of body fat distribution on the incidence of diabetes mellitus. 13.5 years of follow-up of the participants in the study of men born in 1913. Diabetes, 34, 10551058.
  • 35
    Colao, A., Cerbone, G., Pivonello, R., Aimaretti, G., Loche, S., Di Somma, C., Faggiano, A., Corneli, G., Ghigo, E. & Lombardi, G. (1999) The growth hormone (GH) response to the arginine plus GH-releasing hormone test is correlated to the severity of lipid profile abnormalities in adult patients with GH deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 84, 12771128.
  • 36
    De Boer, H., Blok, G.J., Voerman, H.J., Phillips, M. & Schouten, J.A. (1994) Serum lipid levels in growth hormone-deficient men. Metabolism, 43, 199203.
  • 37
    Rosen, T., Eden, S., Larson, G., Wilhelmsen, L. & Bengtsson, B.-A. (1993) Cardiovascular risk factors in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency. Acta Endocrinologica, 129, 195200.
  • 38
    Sanmarti, A., Lucas, A., Hawkins, F., Webb, S.M. & Ulied, A. (1999) Observational study in adult hypopituitary patients with untreated growth hormone deficiency (ODA study). Socioeconomic impact and health status. European Journal of Endocrinology, 141, 481489.
  • 39
    Sverrisdottir, Y.B., Elam, M., Herlitz, H., Bengtsson, B.-A. & Johannsson, G. (1998) Intense sympathetic nerve activity in adults with hypopituitarism and untreated growth hormone deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 83, 18811885.
  • 40
    Colao, A., Di Somma, C., Cuocolo, A., Filippella, M., Rota, F., Acampa, W., Savastano, S., Salvatore, M. & Lombardi, G. (2004) The severity of growth hormone deficiency correlates with the severity of cardiac impairment in 100 adult patients with hypopituitarism: an observational, case-control study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89, 59086004.
  • 41
    Markussis, V., Beshyah, S.A., Fisher, C., Sharp, P., Nicolaides, A.N. & Johnston, D.G. (1992) Detection of premature atherosclerosis by high resolution ultrasonography in symptom-free hypopituitary adults. Lancet, 340, 11881192.
  • 42
    Borson-Chazot, F., Serusclat, A., Kalfallah, Y., Ducottet, X., Sassolas, G., Bernard, S., Labrousse, F., Pastene, J., Sassolas, A., Roux, Y. & Berthezene, F. (1999) Decrease in carotid intima-media thickness after 1 year growth hormone (GH) treatment in adults with GH deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 84, 13291333.
  • 43
    Pfeifer, M., Verhovec, R., Zizek, B., Prezclj, J., Poredos, P. & Clayton, R.N. (1999) Growth hormone (GH) treatment reverses early atherosclerotic changes in GH-deficient adults. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 84, 453457.
  • 44
    Colao, A., Di Somma, C., Filippella, M., Rota, F., Pivonello, R., Orio, F., Vitale, G. & Lombardi, G. (2004) Insulin-like growth factor-I deficiency determines increased intima-media thickness at common carotid arteries in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency. Clinical Endocrinology, 61, 360366.
  • 45
    Lehmann, E.D., Hopkins, K.D., Weissberger, A.J., Gosling, R.G. & Sonksen, P.H. (1993) Aortic distensibility in growth hormone deficient adults. Lancet, 341, 309 (letter).
  • 46
    Evans, L.M., Davies, J.S., Goodfellow, J., Rees, J.A.E. & Scanlon, M.F. (1999) Endothelial dysfunction in hypopituitary adults with growth hormone deficiency. Clinical Endocrinology, 50, 457464.
  • 47
    Amato, G., Carella, C., Fazio, S., La Montagna, G., Cittadini, A., Sabatini, D., Marciano-Mone, C., Saccà, L. & Bellastella, A. (1993) Body composition, bone metabolism, and heart structure and function in growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults before and after GH replacement therapy at low doses. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 77, 16711676.
  • 48
    Merola, B., Cittadini, A., Colao, A., Longobardi, S., Fazio, S., Sabatini, D., Saccà, L. & Lombardi, G. (1993) Cardiac structural and functional abnormalities in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 77, 16581661.
  • 49
    Colao, A., Di Somma, C., Salerno, M., Spinelli, L., Orio, F. Jr & Lombardi, G. (2002) The cardiovascular risk of Growth Hormone-deficient adolescents. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 87, 36503655.
  • 50
    Shulman, D.I., Root, A.W., Diamond, F.B., Bercu, B.B., Martinez, R. & Boucek, R.J. Jr (2003) Effects of one year of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) therapy on cardiac mass and function in children with classical GH deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 88, 40954099.
  • 51
    Salerno, M., Esposito, V., Spinelli, L., Di Somma, C., Farina, V., Muzzica, S., De Horatio, L.T., Lombardi, G. & Colao, A. (2004) Left ventricular mass and function in children with GH deficiency before and during 12 months GH replacement therapy. Clinical Endocrinology, 60, 630636.
  • 52
    Thuesen, L., Jorgensen, J.O.L., Muller, J.R., Kristensen, B.O., Skakkebaek, N.E., Vahl, N. & Christiansen, J.S. (1994) Short and long-term cardiovascular effects of growth hormone therapy in growth hormone deficient adults. Clinical Endocrinology, 41, 615650.
  • 53
    Valcavi, R., Gaddi, O., Zini, M., Iavicoli, M., Mellino, U. & Portioli, I. (1995) Cardiac performance and mass in adult with hypopituitarism: effects of one year of growth hormone treatment. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 80, 659666.
  • 54
    Nass, R., Huber, R.M., Klauss, V., Müller, O.A., Schopohl, J. & Strasburger, C.J. (1995) Effect of growth hormone (hGH) replacement therapy on physical work capacity and cardiac and pulmonary function in patients with hGH deficiency acquired in adulthood. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 80, 552557.
  • 55
    Colao, A., Cuocolo, A., Di Somma, C., Cerbone, G., Della Morte, A.M., Pivonello, R., Nicolai, E., Salvatore, M. & Lombardi, G. (2000) Does the age of onset of growth hormone deficiency affect cardiac performance? A radionuclide angiography study. Clinical Endocrinology, 52, 447455.
  • 56
    Bengtsson, B.-A., Eden, S., Lonn, L., Kvist, H., Stokland, A., Lindstedt, G., Bosaeus, I., Tolli, J., Sjostrom, L. & Isaksson, O.G. (1993) Treatment of adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency with recombinant human GH. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 76, 309317.
  • 57
    Megnien, J.L., Denarie, N., Cocaul, M., Simon, A. & Levenson, J. (1999) Predictive value of waist-to-hip ratio on cardiovascular risk events. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 23, 9097.
  • 58
    Abdu, A.M., Neary, R., Elhadd, T.A., Akber, M. & Clayton, R.N. (2001) Coronary risk in growth hormone deficient hypopituitary adults: increased predicted risk is due largely to lipid profile abnormalities. Clinical Endocrinology, 55, 209216.
  • 59
    Maison, P., Griffin, S., Nicoue-Beglah, M., Haddad, N., Balkau, B. & Chanson, P. (2004) Impact of Growth Hormone (GH) treatment on cardiovascular risk factors in GH-deficient adults: a metaanalysis of blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trias. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89, 21922199.
  • 60
    Colao, A., Di Somma, C., Rota, F., Pivonello, R., Savanelli, M.C., Spiezia, S. & Lombardi, G. (2005) Short-term effects of Growth Hormone (GH) treatment or deprivation on cardiovascular risk parameters and intima-media thickness at carotid arteries in patients with severe GH deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90, 20562062.
  • 61
    Colao, A., Di Somma, C., Cuocolo, A., Spinelli, L., Acampa, W., Spiezia, S., Rota, F., Savanelli, M.C. & Lombardi, G. (2005) Does a gender-related effect of growth hormone (GH) replacement exist on cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac morphology, and performance and atherosclerosis? Results of a two-year open, prospective study in young adult men and women with severe GH deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90, 51465155.
  • 62
    Colao, A., Di Somma, C., Rota, F., Di Maio, S., Salerno, M., Klain, A., Spiezia, S. & Lombardi, G. (2005) Common carotid intima-media thickness in Growth Hormone (GH)-deficient adolescents: a prospective study after GH withdrawal and restarting GH replacement. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90, 26592665.
  • 63
    Cuneo, R.C., Salomon, F., Wilmshurst, P., Byrne, C., Wiles, C.M., Hesp, R. & Sönksen, P.H. (1991) Cardiovascular effects of growth hormone treatment in growth-hormone-deficient adults: stimulation of the renin–aldosterone system. Clinical Science, 81, 587592.
  • 64
    Caidahl, K., Edén, S. & Bengtsson, B.-A. (1994) Cardiovascular and renal effects of growth hormone. Clinical Endocrinology, 40, 393400.
  • 65
    Beshyah, S.A., Shahi, M., Foale, R. & Johnston, D.G. (1995) Cardiovascular effects of prolonged growth hormone replacement in adults. Journal of Internal Medicine, 237, 3542.
  • 66
    Sartorio, A., Ferrero, S., Conti, A., Bragato, R., Malfatto, G., Leonetti, G. & Faglia, G. (1997) Adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency: effects of growth hormone treatment on cardiac structure. Journal of Internal Medicine, 241, 515520.
  • 67
    Link, K., Bulow, B., Westman, K., Salmonsson, E.C., Eskilsson, J. & Erfurth, E.M. (2001) Low individualized growth hormone (GH) dose increased renal and cardiac growth in young adults with childhood onset GH deficiency. Clinical Endocrinology, 55, 741748.
  • 68
    Salerno, M., Esposito, V., Farina, V., Radetti, G., Umbaldo, A., Capalbo, D., Spinelli, L., Muzzica, S., Lombardi, G. & Colao, A. (2006) Improvement of cardiac performance and cardiovascular risk factors in children with GH deficiency after two years of GH replacement therapy: an observational, open, prospective, case-control study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 91, 12881295.
  • 69
    Ter Maaten, J., De Boer, H., Kamp, O., Stuurman, L. & Van der Veen, E. (1999) Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement in men with childhood-onset GH deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 84, 23732380.
  • 70
    Gibney, J., Wallace, J.D., Spinks, T., Schnorr, L., Ranicar, A., Cuneo, R.C., Lockhart, S., Burnand, K.G., Salomon, F., Sonksen, P.H. & Russell-Jones, D. (1999) The effects of 10 years of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) in adult GH-deficient patients. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 84, 25962602.
  • 71
    Gillberg, P., Bramnert, M., Thorén, M., Werner, S. & Johannsson, G. (2001) Commencing growth hormone replacement in adults with a fixed low dose. Effects on serum lipoproteins, glucose metabolism, body composition, and cardiovascular function. Growth Hormone and IGF Research, 11, 273281.
  • 72
    Sneppen, S., Steensgaard-Hansen, F. & Feldt-Rasmussen, U. (2002) Cardiac effects of low-dose growth hormone replacement therapy in growth hormone-deficient adults. Hormone Research, 58, 2128.
  • 73
    Mauras, N., Pescovitz, O.H., Allada, V., Messig, M., Wajnrajch, M.P., Lippe, B. & Transition Study Group. (2005) Limited efficacy of growth hormone (GH) during transition of GH-deficient patients from adolescence to adulthood: a phase III multicenter, double-blind, randomized two-year trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90, 39463955.
  • 74
    Colao, A., Di Somma, C., Cuocolo, A., Spinelli, L., Tedesco, N., Pivonello, R., Bonaduce, D., Salvatore, M. & Lombardi, G. (2001) Improved cardiovascular risk factors and cardiac performance after 12 months of growth hormone (GH) replacement in young adult patients with GH deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 18741881.
  • 75
    Chrisoulidou, A., Beshyah, S.A., Rutherford, O., Spinks, T.J., Mayet, J., Kyd, P., Anyaoku, V., Haida, A., Ariff, B., Murphy, M., Thomas, E., Robinson, S., Foale, R. & Johnston, D.G. (2000) Effects of 7 years of growth hormone replacement therapy in hypopituitary adults. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85, 37623769.
  • 76
    Ezzat, S., Fear, S., Gaillard, R.C., Gayle, C., Landy, H., Marcovitz, S., Mattioni, T., Nussey, S., Rees, A. & Svanberg, E. (2002) Gender-specific responses of lean body composition and non-gender-specific cardiac function improvement after GH replacement in GH-deficient adults. Journal Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 87, 2725–33. Erratum in (2002). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 87, 4461.
  • 77
    Colao, A., Di Somma, C., Pivonello, R., Cuocolo, A., Spinelli, L., Bonaduce, D., Salvatore, M. & Lombardi, G. (2002) The cardiovascular risk of adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) improved after GH replacement and worsened in untreated GHD: a 12 month prospective study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 87, 10881093.
  • 78
    Abstract, R., Feldt-Rasmussen, U., Mattsson, A.F., Monson, J.P., Bengtsson, B.-A., Góth, M.I., Wilton, P. & Koltowska-Häggström, M. (2006) Determinants of cardiovascular risk in 2589 hypopituitary GH-deficient adults – a KIMS database analysis. European Journal of Endocrinology, 155, 7990.
  • 79
    Lie, J.T. & Grossman, S.J. (1980) Pathology of the heart in acromegaly: anatomic findings in 27 autopsied patients. American Heart Journal, 100, 4152.
  • 80
    Colao, A., Merola, B., Ferone, D. & Lombardi, G. (1997) Acromegaly. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 82, 27772781.
  • 81
    Minniti, G., Jaffrain-Rea, M.L., Moroni, C., Baldelli, R., Ferretti, E., Cassone, R., Gulino, A. & Tamburrano, G. (1998) Echocardiographic evidence for a direct effect of GH/IGF-I hypersecretion on cardiac mass and function in young acromegalics. Clinical Endocrinology, 49, 101106.
  • 82
    Colao, A., Spinelli, L., Cuocolo, A., Spiezia, S., Bonaduce, D., Salvatore, M. & Lombardi, G. (2002) Cardiovascular consequences of early-onset growth hormone excess. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 87, 30973104.
  • 83
    Colao, A., Baldelli, R., Marzullo, P., Ferretti, E., Ferone, D., Gargiulo, P., Peretta, M., Tamburrano, G., Lombardi, G. & Liuzzi, A. (2000) Systemic hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance are independently correlated to the severity of the acromegalic cardiomyopathy. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85, 193199.
  • 84
    Ferrari, A.U. (2002) Modifications of the cardiovascular system with aging. American Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, 11, 3033.
  • 85
    Kahaly, G., Olshausen, K.V., Mohr-Kahaly, S., Erbel, R., Boor, S., Beyer, J. & Meyer, J. (1992) Arrhythmia profile in acromegaly. European Heart Journal, 13, 5156.
  • 86
    Rodrigues, E.A., Caruana, M.P., Lahiri, A., Tabarro, J.D., Jacobs, H.S. & Raftery, E.B. (1989) Subclinical cardiac dysfunction in acromegaly evidence for a specific disease of heart muscle. British Heart Journal, 62, 185194.
  • 87
    Colao, A., Spinelli, L., Marzullo, P., Pivonello, R., Petretta, M., Di Somma, C., Vitale, G., Bonaduce, D. & Lombardi, G. (2003) High prevalence of cardiac valve disease in acromegaly: an observational analytical prospective case-control study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 88, 31963201.
  • 88
    Pereira, A.M., Van Thiel, S.W., Lindner, J.R., Roelfsema, F., Van Der Wall, E.E., Morreau, H., Smit, J.W., Romijn, J.A. & Bax, J.J. (2004) Increased prevalence of regurgitant valvular heart disease in acromegaly. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89, 7175.
  • 89
    Vitale, G., Pivonello, R., Auriemma, R.S., Guerra, E., Milone, F., Savastano, S., Lombardi, G. & Colao, A. (2005) Hypertension in acromegaly and in the normal population: prevalence and determinants. Clinical Endocrinology, 63, 470476.
  • 90
    Colao, A., Spiezia, S., Cerbone, G., Pivonello, R., Marzullo, P., Ferone, D., Di Somma, C., Assanti, A.P. & Lombardi, G. (2001) Increased arterial intima-media thickness by B-M mode echodoppler ultrasonography in acromegaly. Clinical Endocrinology, 54, 515524.
  • 91
    Otsuki, M., Kasayama, S., Yamamoto, H., Saito, H., Sumitani, S., Kouhara, H., Saitoh, Y., Ohnishi, T. & Arita, N. (2001) Characterization of premature atherosclerosis of carotid arteries in acromegalic patients. Clinical Endocrinology, 54, 791796.
  • 92
    Colao, A. & Marzullo, Lombardi, P. and The Multicenter Italian study Group on lanreotide, G. (2002) Effect of a six-month treatment with lanreotide on cardiovascular risk factors and arterial intima-media thickness in patients with acromegaly. European Journal of Endocrinology, 146, 303309.
  • 93
    Maison, P., Demolis, P., Young, J., Schaison, G., Giudicelli, J.F. & Chanson, P. (2000) Vascular reactivity in acromegalic patients: preliminary evidence for regional endothelial dysfunction and increased sympathetic vasoconstriction. Clinical Endocrinology, 53, 445451.
  • 94
    Brevetti, G., Marzullo, P. & Silvestro, A. (2002) Early vascular alterations in acromegaly. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 87, 31743179.
  • 95
    Melmed, S. (2006) Acromegaly. New England Journal of Medicine, 355, 2558–73. Erratum in (2007). New England Journal of Medicine, 356, 879.
  • 96
    Hayward, R.P., Emanuel, R.W. & Nabarro, J.D.N. (1987) Acromegalic heart disease: influence of treatment of the acromegaly on the heart. Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 62, 4158.
  • 97
    Minniti, G., Moroni, C., Jaffrain-Rea, M.L., Esposito, V., Santoro, A., Affricano, C., Cantore, G., Tamburrano, G. & Cassone, R. (2001) Marked improvement in cardiovascular function after successful transsphenoidal surgery in acromegalic patients. Clinical Endocrinology, 55, 307313.
  • 98
    Colao, A., Cuocolo, A., Marzullo, P., Nicolai, E., Ferone, D., Della Morte, A.M., Pivonello, R., Salvatore, M. & Lombardi, G. (2001) Is the acromegalic cardiomyopathy reversible? Effect of 5 year normalization of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I levels on cardiac performance. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 15511557.
  • 99
    Vianna, C.B., Vieira, M.L., Mady, C., Liberman, B., Durazzo, A.E., Knoepfelmacher, M., Salgado, L.R. & Ramires, J.A. (2002) Treatment of acromegaly improves myocardial abnormalities. American Heart Journal, 143, 873876.
  • 100
    Jaffrain-Rea, M.L., Minniti, G., Moroni, C., Esposito, V., Ferretti, E., Santoro, A., Infusino, T., Tamburrano, G., Cantore, G. & Cassone, R. (2003) Impact of successful transsphenoidal surgery on cardiovascular risk factors in acromegaly. European Journal of Endocrinology, 148, 193201.
  • 101
    De Marinis, L., Bianchi, A., Mazziotti, G., Mettimano, M., Milardi, D., Fusco, A., Cimino, V., Maira, G., Pontecorvi, A. & Giustina, A. (2008) The long-term cardiovascular outcome of different GH-lowering treatments in acromegaly.Pituitary, 11, 1320.
  • 102
    Baldwin, A., Cundy, T., Butler, J. & Timmis, A.D. (1985) Progression of cardiovascular disease in acromegalic patients treated by external pituitary irradiation. Acta Endocrinologica, 100, 581587.
  • 103
    Thuesen, L., Christensen, S.E., Weeke, J., Orskov, H. & Henningsen, P. (1989) The cardiovascular effects of octreotide treatment in acromegaly: an echocardiographic study. Clinical Endocrinology, 30, 619625.
  • 104
    Tokgözoglu, S.L., Erbas, T., Aytemir, K., Akalin, S., Kes, S. & Oram, E. (1994) Effects of octreotide on left ventricular mass in acromegaly. American Journal of Cardiology, 74, 10721074.
  • 105
    Pereira, J., Rodriguez-Puras, M.J., Leal-Cerro, A., Martinez, A., Garcia-Luna, P.P., Gavilan, I., Pumar, A. & Astorga, R. (1991) Acromegalic cardiopathy improves after treatment with increasing doses of octreotide. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 14, 1723.
  • 106
    Lim, M.J., Barkan, A.L. & Buda, A.J. (1992) Rapid reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy in acromegaly after suppression of growth hormone hypersecretion. Annals of Internal Medicine, 117, 719726.
  • 107
    Merola, B., Cittadini, A., Colao, A., Ferone, D., Fazio, S., Sabatini, D., Biondi, B., Saccà, L. & Lombardi, G. (1993) Chronic treatment with the somatostatin analog octreotide improves cardiac abnormalities in acromegaly. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 77, 790793.
  • 108
    Lombardi, G., Colao, A., Ferone, D., Marzullo, P., Landi, M.L., Longobardi, S., Iervolino, E., Cuocolo, A., Fazio, S., Merola, B. & Saccà, L. (1996) Cardiovascular aspects of acromegaly: effects of treatment. Metabolism, 45 (Suppl. 1), 5760.
  • 109
    Padayatty, S.J., Perrins, E.J. & Belchetz, P.E. (1996) Octreotide treatment increases exercise capacity in patients with acromegaly. European Journal of Endocrinology, 134, 554559.
  • 110
    Baldelli, R., Ferretti, E., Jaffrain-Rea, M.L., Iacobellis, G., Minniti, G., Caracciolo, B., Moroni, C., Cassone, R., Gulino, A. & Tamburrano, G. (1999) Cardiac effects of lanreotide, a slow release somatostatin analog in acromegalic patients. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 84, 575532.
  • 111
    Manelli, F., Desenzani, P., Boni, E., Bugari, G., Negrini, F., Romanelli, G., Grassi, V. & Giustina, A. (1999) Cardiovascular effects of a single slow release lanreotide injection in patients with acromegaly and left ventricular hypertrophy. Pituitary, 2, 205210.
  • 112
    Hradec, J., Kral, J., Janota, T., Krsek, M., Hana, V., Marek, J. & Malik, M. (1999) Regression of acromegalic left ventricular hypertrophy after lanreotide (a slow-release somatostatin analog). American Journal of Cardiology, 83, 15061509.
  • 113
    Colao, A., Cuocolo, A., Marzullo, P., Nicolai, E., Ferone, D., Florimonte, L., Salvatore, M. & Lombardi, G. (1999) Effects of one-year treatment with octreotide on cardiac performance in patients with acromegaly. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 84, 1723.
  • 114
    Colao, A., Marzullo, P., Ferone, D., Spinelli, L., Cuocolo, A., Bonaduce, D., Salvatore, M., Boerlin, V., Lancranjan, I. & Lombardi, G. (2000) Cardiovascular effects of depot long-acting somatostatin analog Sandostatin LAR® in acromegaly. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 31323140.
  • 115
    Colao, A., Marzullo, P., Cuocolo, A., Spinelli, L., Landi, M.L., Bonaduce, D., Salvatore, M. & Lombardi, G. (2003) Reversal of acromegalic cardiomyopathy in young but not in middle-aged patients after 12 months of treatment with the depot long-acting somatostatin analogue Octreotide. Clinical Endocrinology, 58, 169176.
  • 116
    Lombardi, G., Colao, Marzullo, A., Biondi, P., Calmieri, B. & Fazio, E. and The Multicenter Italian study Group on lanreotide, S. (2003) Improvement of left ventricular hypertrophy and arrhythmias after lanreotide-induced growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I decrease in acromegaly: a single-blind prospective multicenter study. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 25, 971976.
  • 117
    Pivonello, R., Galderisi, M., Auriemma, R.S., De Martino, M.C., Galdiero, M., Ciccarelli, A., D’Errico, A., Kourides, I., Burman, P., Lombardi, G. & Colao, A. (2007) Treatment with growth hormone receptor antagonist in acromegaly: effect on cardiac structure and performance. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92, 476482.
  • 118
    Maison, P., Tropeano, A.I., Macquin-Mavier, I., Giustina, A. & Chanson, P. (2007) Impact of somatostatin analogs on the heart in acromegaly: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92, 17431747.
  • 119
    Ciulla, M.M., Epaminonda, P., Paliotti, R., Barelli, M.V., Ronchi, C., Cappiello, V., Sartorio, A., Buonamici, V., Magrini, F., Beck-Peccoz, P. & Arosio, M. (2004) Evaluation of cardiac structure by echoreflectivity analysis in acromegaly: effects of treatment. European Journal of Endocrinology, 151, 179186.
  • 120
    Bogazzi, F., Di Bello, V., Palagi, C., Donne, M.G., Di Cori, A., Gavioli, S., Talini, E., Cosci, C., Sardella, C., Brogioni, S., Mariani, M. & Martino, E. (2005) Improvement of intrinsic myocardial contractility and cardiac fibrosis degree in acromegalic patients treated with somatostatin analogues: a prospective study. Clinical Endocrinology, 62, 590596.
  • 121
    Colao, A., Ferone, D., Cappabianca, P., De Caro, M.L., Marzullo, P., Monticelli, A., Alfieri, A., Merola, B., Calì, A., De Divitiis, E. & Lombardi, G. (1997) Effect of octreotide pretreatment on surgical outcome in acromegaly. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 82, 33083314.
  • 122
    Fatti, L.M., Scacchi, M., Lavezzi, E., Pecori-Giraldi, F., De Martin, M., Toja, P., Michailidis, G., Stramba-Badiale, M. & Cavagnini, F. (2006) Effects of treatment with somatostatin analogues on QT interval duration in acromegalic patients. Clinical Endocrinology, 65, 626630.
  • 123
    Herrington, A.M., George, K.W. & Moulds, C.C. (1998) Octreotide-induced bradycardia. Pharmacotherapy, 18, 413416.
  • 124
    Smith, W.H., Nair, R.U., Adamson, D., Kearney, M.T., Ball, S.G. & Balmforth, A.J. (2005) Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in the human heart: differential expression by myocytes and fibroblasts. Journal of Endocrinology, 187, 379386.
  • 125
    Van Der Klaauw, A.A., Bax, J.J., Roelfsema, F., Bleeker, G.B., Holman, E.R., Corssmit, E.P., Van Der Wall, E.E., Smit, J.W., Romijn, J.A. & Pereira, A.M. (2006) Uncontrolled acromegaly is associated with progressive mitral valvular regurgitation. Growth Hormone IGF Research, 16, 101107.
  • 126
    Bihan, H., Espinosa, C., Valdes-Socin, H., Salenave, S., Young, J., Levasseur, S., Assayag, P., Beckers, A. & Chanson, P. (2004) Long-term outcome of patients with acromegaly and congestive heart failure. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89, 53085313.