• 1
    Aloia, J.F., Talwar, S.A., Pollack, S. et al. (2006) Optimal vitamin D status and serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in African American women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 602609.
  • 2
    Morley, R., Carlin, J.B., Pasco, J.A. et al. (2006) Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations and offspring birth size. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 91, 906912.
  • 3
    Hamilton, S.A., McNeil, R., Hollis, B.W. et al. (2010) Profound vitamin D deficiency in a diverse group of women during pregnancy living in a sun-rich environment at latitude 32 degrees N. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2010, 917428.
  • 4
    Gale, C.R., Robinson, S.M., Harvey, N.C. et al. (2008) Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and child outcomes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 62, 6877.
  • 5
    Jones, G. (2008) Pharmacokinetics of vitamin D toxicity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88, 582S586S.
  • 6
    La’ulu, S.L. & Roberts, W.L. (2010) Performance characteristics of six intact parathyroid hormone assays. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 134, 930938.
  • 7
    Neveux, L.M., Palomaki, G.E., Larrivee, D.A. et al. (1996) Refinements in managing maternal weight adjustment for interpreting prenatal screening results. Prenatal Diagnosis, 16, 11151119.
  • 8
    Aloia, J.F., Feuerman, M. & Yeh, J.K. (2006) Reference range for serum parathyroid hormone. Endocrine Practice, 12, 137144.
  • 9
    Souberbielle, J.C., Fayol, V., Sault, C. et al. (2005) Assay-specific decision limits for two new automated parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays. Clinical Chemistry, 51, 395400.
  • 10
    Bowyer, L., Catling-Paull, C., Diamond, T. et al. (2009) Vitamin D, PTH and calcium levels in pregnant women and their neonates. Clinical Endocrinology, 70, 372377.
  • 11
    Yu, C.K., Sykes, L., Sethi, M. et al. (2009) Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation during pregnancy. Clinical Endocrinology, 70, 685690.
  • 12
    Kovacs, C.S. (2001) Calcium and bone metabolism in pregnancy and lactation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 23442348.
  • 13
    Fudge, N.J. & Kovacs, C.S. (2010) Pregnancy up-regulates intestinal calcium absorption and skeletal mineralization independently of the vitamin D receptor. Endocrinology, 151, 886895.
  • 14
    Cross, N.A., Hillman, L.S., Allen, S.H. et al. (1995) Calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism during pregnancy, lactation, and postweaning: a longitudinal study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61, 514523.
  • 15
    Seely, E.W., Brown, E.M., DeMaggio, D.M. et al. (1997) A prospective study of calciotropic hormones in pregnancy and post partum: reciprocal changes in serum intact parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 176, 214217.
  • 16
    Naylor, K.E., Iqbal, P., Fledelius, C. et al. (2000) The effect of pregnancy on bone density and bone turnover. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 15, 129137.
  • 17
    Nesby-O’Dell, S., Scanlon, K.S., Cogswell, M.E. et al. (2002) Hypovitaminosis D prevalence and determinants among African American and white women of reproductive age: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76, 187192.
  • 18
    van der Meer, I.M., Karamali, N.S., Boeke, A.J. et al. (2006) High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant non-Western women in The Hague, Netherlands. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 350353. quiz 468–359.
  • 19
    Powe, C.E., Seely, E.W., Rana, S. et al. (2010) First trimester vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and subsequent preeclampsia. Hypertension, 56, 758763.
  • 20
    Bodnar, L.M., Simhan, H.N., Powers, R.W. et al. (2007) High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates. Journal of Nutrition, 137, 447452.
  • 21
    O’Riordan, M.N., Kiely, M., Higgins, J.R. et al. (2008) Prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status during pregnancy. Irish Medical Journal, 101, 240, 242243.
  • 22
    Holick, M.F., Siris, E.S., Binkley, N. et al. (2005) Prevalence of Vitamin D inadequacy among postmenopausal North American women receiving osteoporosis therapy. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90, 32153224.
  • 23
    Jorde, R., Sneve, M., Hutchinson, M. et al. (2010) Tracking of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels during 14 years in a population-based study and during 12 months in an intervention study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 171, 903908.
  • 24
    Looker, A.C., Pfeiffer, C.M., Lacher, D.A. et al. (2008) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of the US population: 1988–1994 compared with 2000–2004. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88, 15191527.
  • 25
    Young, K.A., Engelman, C.D., Langefeld, C.D. et al. (2009) Association of plasma vitamin D levels with adiposity in Hispanic and African Americans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94, 33063313.
  • 26
    Aloia, J.F., Chen, D.G. & Chen, H. (2010) The 25(OH)D/PTH threshold in black women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 95, 50695073.
  • 27
    Evans, K.N., Bulmer, J.N., Kilby, M.D. et al. (2004) Vitamin D and placental-decidual function. Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation, 11, 263271.
  • 28
    Wang, T.J., Zhang, F., Richards, J.B. et al. (2010) Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: a genome-wide association study. Lancet, 376, 180188.
  • 29
    McCullough, M.L. (2007) Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy: bringing the issues to light. Journal of Nutrition, 137, 305306.
  • 30
    Ginde, A.A., Sullivan, A.F., Mansbach, J.M. et al. (2010) Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in the United States. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 202, 436, e431438.
  • 31
    Lee, J.M., Smith, J.R., Philipp, B.L. et al. (2007) Vitamin D deficiency in a healthy group of mothers and newborn infants. Clinical Pediatric (Philadelphia), 46, 4244.
  • 32
    Basile, L.A., Taylor, S.N., Wagner, C.L. et al. (2007) Neonatal vitamin D status at birth at latitude 32 degrees 72’: evidence of deficiency. Journal of Perinatology, 27, 568571.
  • 33
    Hollis, B.W. & Wagner, C.L. (2004) Assessment of dietary vitamin D requirements during pregnancy and lactation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79, 717726.
  • 34
    Kreiter, S.R., Schwartz, R.P., Kirkman, H.N. et al. (2000) Nutritional rickets in African American breast-fed infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 137, 153157.
  • 35
    Ladhani, S., Srinivasan, L., Buchanan, C. et al. (2004) Presentation of vitamin D deficiency. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 89, 781784.
  • 36
    Maiya, S., Sullivan, I., Allgrove, J. et al. (2008) Hypocalcaemia and vitamin D deficiency: an important, but preventable, cause of life-threatening infant heart failure. Heart, 94, 581584.
  • 37
    Wharton, B. & Bishop, N. (2003) Rickets. Lancet, 362, 13891400.
  • 38
    Ross, A.C., Manson, J.E., Abrams, S.A. et al. (2011) The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin d from the institute of medicine: what clinicians need to know. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 96, 5358.
  • 39
    Aloia, J.F., Patel, M., Dimaano, R. et al. (2008) Vitamin D intake to attain a desired serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87, 19521958.