The relationship between impaired fasting glucose and self-reported sleep quality in a Chinese population
Correspondence: Chih-Jen Chang, Department of Family Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, 138, Sheng Li Road, Tainan, 70403, Taiwan. Tel.: 886 6 235 3535, ext 5210; Fax: 886 6 275 4243; E-mail: email@example.com
Decreased sleep quality and duration predicts the development of type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, there is limited research on the association between prediabetes and sleep quality. The aim of this study is to investigate this relationship in a Chinese population.
Subjects were recruited from the Prevention Health Center of National Cheng Kung University Hospital. Anthropometric data and metabolic parameters were measured. The diagnoses of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes followed the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).
A total of 1805 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 1217), IFG (n = 118), IGT (n = 287), IFG+IGT (n = 80) and newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD, n = 103) were recruited. The global PSQI scores were 6·07 ± 2·44, 6·74 ± 3·23, 6·91 ± 3·51, 6·74 ± 2·26 and 7·16 ± 3·49 in subjects with NGT, IFG, IGT, IFG+IGT and NDD, respectively. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that female gender, smoking, IGT, IFG+IGT and NDD, but not IFG, were independent determinants of global PSQI score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female gender, IGT, IFG+IGT and NDD, but not IFG, were predictors of poor sleepers.
Subjects with prediabetes and NDD had a significantly higher global PSQI score than those with NGT. Furthermore, female gender, smoking, IGT, IFG+IGT and NDD, but not IFG, were significantly associated with poor sleep quality independent of cardiometabolic risk factors in a Chinese population.