Clinical Endocrinology

Factors determining weight gain in adults and relation with glucose tolerance

Authors

  • Federico Soriguer,

    Corresponding author
    1. CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas asociadas (CIBERDEM), Málaga, Spain
    2. CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Málaga, Spain
    • Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain
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  • Gemma Rojo-Martínez,

    1. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain
    2. CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas asociadas (CIBERDEM), Málaga, Spain
    3. CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Málaga, Spain
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  • Sergio Valdés,

    1. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain
    2. CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas asociadas (CIBERDEM), Málaga, Spain
    3. CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Málaga, Spain
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  • Maria José Tapia,

    1. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain
    2. CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas asociadas (CIBERDEM), Málaga, Spain
    3. CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Málaga, Spain
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  • Patricia Botas,

    1. Department of Medicine, Hospital San Agustín, Avilés, Spain
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  • Sonsoles Morcillo,

    1. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain
    2. CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas asociadas (CIBERDEM), Málaga, Spain
    3. CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Málaga, Spain
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  • Elías Delgado,

    1. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain
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  • Isabel Esteva,

    1. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain
    2. CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas asociadas (CIBERDEM), Málaga, Spain
    3. CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Málaga, Spain
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  • Maria Soledad Ruiz de Adana,

    1. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain
    2. CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas asociadas (CIBERDEM), Málaga, Spain
    3. CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Málaga, Spain
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  • María Cruz Almaraz,

    1. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain
    2. CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas asociadas (CIBERDEM), Málaga, Spain
    3. CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Málaga, Spain
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  • Francisco Diaz-Cadorniga,

    1. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain
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  • Carolina Gutierrez-Repiso,

    1. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain
    2. CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas asociadas (CIBERDEM), Málaga, Spain
    3. CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Málaga, Spain
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  • Eduardo Garcia-Fuentes

    1. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain
    2. CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Málaga, Spain
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Correspondence: Federico Soriguer, MD, Endocrinology & Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Plaza del Hospital Civil s/n, 29009 Malaga, Spain. Tel.: 34 951290343; Fax: 34 952286704;

E-mail: federico.soriguer.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es

Summary

Objective

Modifications in lifestyle, diet and certain clinical events are major contributors for the high prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with weight gain in a population of Spanish adults.

Design

The study was undertaken in two population-based cohorts from the north and the south of Spain (baseline and after 6 years). The Asturias Study, in the north, included 1034 persons aged 30–75 years, of whom 701 were reassessed. The Pizarra Study, in the south, included 1226 persons aged 18–65 years, of whom 783 were re-evaluated. Both studies involved a nutritional questionnaire, a physical examination and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

Results

During the follow-up, 32·3% of the participants lost weight, 34·5% gained fewer than 4 kg and 33·2% gained more than 4 kg. Weight gain was greater in persons younger than 50 years and in those with an initial body mass index below 30. Weight gain was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and abnormal glucose tolerance, whereas weight loss in persons with these disorders was associated with a normal OGTT 6 years later. Persons who took less exercise and those who reported a higher daily calorie intake experienced greater weight gain.

Conclusion

The longitudinal changes in weight affect the development of T2DM and abnormal glucose tolerance. The weight is a dynamic phenomenon affected by several social customs.

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