• 1
    Wiener HG, Klinkhamer P, Schenck U, Bulten J., Bergeron C., Herbert A. Laboratory guidelines and quality assurance practices for cytology, In: European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. ArbynM, AnttilaA, JordanJ, SegnanN, RoncoG, WienerH (eds). Luxembourg: Office of Official Publ EU; 2007: (in press).
  • 2
    Klinkhamer PJ, Vooijs GP De Haan AF. Intraobserver and interobserver variability in the diagnosis of epithelial abnormalities in cervical smears. Acta Cytol 1988;32: 794800.
  • 3
    O'Sullivan JP, Ismail SM, Barnes WS, Deery AR, Gradwell E, Harvey JA, Husain OA, Kocjan G, McKee G, Olafsdottir R, Ratcliffe NA, Newcombe RG. Inter- and intra-observer variation in the reporting of cervical smears: specialist cytopathologists versus histopathologists. Cytopathology 1996;7:7889.
  • 4
    Koss LG. The Papanicolaou test for cervical cancer detection. A triumph and a tragedy. JAMA 1989;261:737743.
  • 5
    Grenko RT, Abendroth CS, Frauenhoffer EE, Ruggiero FM, Zaino RJ. Variance in the interpretation of cervical biopsy specimens obtained for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Am J Clin Pathol 2000;114: 735740.
  • 6
    Stoler MH. Toward objective quality assurance: the eyes don't have it. Am J Clin Pathol 2002;117:520522.
  • 7
    Stoler MH, Schiffman MA. Interobserver reproducibility of cervical cytologic and histologic interpretations. JAMA 2001;285:15001505.
  • 8
    Tarkkanen J, Geagea A, Nieminen P, Anttila A. Quality improvement project in cervical cancer screening: practical measures for monitoring laboratory performance. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2003;82:8288.
  • 9
    Smith PA, Hewer EM. Examination for the Certificate in Advanced Practice in Cervical Cytology–the first year's experience. Cytopathology 2003;14:101104.
  • 10
    Breitenecker G, Dinges HP, Regitnig P, Wiener H, Vutuc C. Cytopathology in Austria. Cytopathology 2004;15: 113118.
  • 11
    Papanicolaou GN. A new procedure for staining vaginal smears. Science 1942;95:438439.
  • 12
    Gill GW, Frost JK, Miller KA. A new formula for a half-oxidized hematoxylin solution that neither overstains nor requires differentiation. Acta Cytol 1974;18:300311.
  • 13
    Bales CE. Laboratory techniques. In: Koss's diagnostic cytology and its histopathologic bases. Koss LG, Melamed MR (eds.) 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkens; 2006: pp. 15691634.
  • 14
    Schenck U, Planding W. Quality assurance by continuous recording of the microscope status. Acta Cytol 1996;40:7380.
  • 15
    NHSCSP. Achievable standards, benchmarks for reporting, and criteria for evaluating cervical cytopathology. Second edition including revised performance indicators (2nd edition). NHSCSP publication 1, 1–36. Sheffield: NHS Cancer Screening Programmes; 2000.
  • 16
    Mody DR, Davey DD, Branca M, Raab SS, Schenck U, Stanley MW, Wright RG, Arbyn M, Beccati D, Bishop JW, Collaço LM, Cramer SF, Fitzgerald P, Heinrich J, Jhala NC, Montanari G, Kapila K, Naryshkin S, Suprun HZ. Quality assurance and risk reduction guidelines. Acta Cytol 2000;44:496507.
  • 17
    Arcelay A, Sanchez E, Hernandez L, Inclan G, Bacigalupe M, Letona J, Gonzalez RM, Martinez-Conde AE. Self-assessment of all the health centres of a public health service through the European Model of total quality management. Int J Health Care Qual Assur Inc Leadersh Health Serv 1999;12:5458.
  • 18
    Council of Europe. Developing a methodology for drawing up guidelines on best medical practice (recommendation (2001) 13 and explanatory memorandum). Stasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing; 2002.
  • 19
    Faraker CA, Boxer ME. Rapid review (partial rescreening) of cervical cytology. Four years experience and quality assurance implications. J Clin Pathol 1996;49:587591.
  • 20
    Arbyn M, Schenck U. Detection of false negative Pap smears by rapid reviewing: a meta-analysis. Acta Cytol 2000;44:949957.
  • 21
    Amaral RG, Zeferino LC, Hardy E, Westin MC, Martinez EZ, Montemor EB. Quality assurance in cervical smears: 100% rapid rescreening vs. 10% random rescreening. Acta Cytol 2005;49:244248.
  • 22
    Arbyn M, Schenck U, Ellison E, Hanselaar A. Metaanalysis of the accuracy of rapid prescreening relative to full screening of pap smears. Cancer 2003;99:916.
  • 23
    Cochand-Priollet B, Vincent S, Vielh P. Cytopathology in France. Cytopathology 2004;15:163166.
  • 24
    Hutchinson ML. Assessing the costs and benefits of alternative rescreening strategies. Acta Cytol 1996;40:48.
  • 25
    Melamed MR. Rescreening for quality control in cytology. Acta Cytol 1996;40:1213.
  • 26
    Patten SF, Lee JSJ, Wilbur DC, Bonfiglio TA, Colgan TJ, Richart RM, Moinuddin S. The Autopap 300 QC system multicenter clinical trials for use in quality control rescreening of cervical smears. I. A prospective intended use study. Cancer 1997;81:337342.
  • 27
    Kaminsky FC, Benneyan JC, Mullins DL. Automated rescreening in cervical cytology. Mathematical models for evaluating overall process sensitivity, specificity and cost. Acta Cytol 1997;41:209223.
  • 28
    Houliston DC, Boyd CM, Nicholas DS, Smith JA. Personal performance profiles: a useful adjunct to quality assurance in cervical cytology. Cytopathology 1998;9: 162170.
  • 29
    Mitchell H, Medley G. Differences between Papanicolaou smears with correct and incorrect diagnoses. Cytopathology 1995;6:368375.
  • 30
    O'Sullivan JP, A'Hern RP, Chapman PA, Jenkins L, Smith R, Al-Nafussi A, Brett MT, Herbert A, McKean ME, Waddell CA. A case-control study of true positive versus false negative cervical smears in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III. Cytopathology 1998;9:155161.
  • 31
    Ronco G, Montanari G, Confortini M, Parisio F, Berardengo E, Delpiano AM, Arnaud S, Campione D, Baldini D, Poll P, Lynge E, Mancini E, Segnan N. Effect of circulation and discussion of cervical smears on agreement between laboratories. Cytopathology 2003;14: 115120.
  • 32
    Johnson EJ, Patnick J. Achievable standards, benchmarks for reporting, and criteria for evaluating cervical cytopathology. Second edition including revised performance indicators. Cytopathology 2000;11:212241.
  • 33
    Cooper J, Hewison A. Implementing audit in palliative care: an action research approach. J Adv Nurs 2002;39:360369.
  • 34
    Klazinga N. Re-engineering trust: the adoption and adaption of four models for external quality assurance of health care services in western European health care systems. Int J Qual Health Care 2000;12:183189.
  • 35
    Moeller J, Breinlinger-O'Reilly J, Elser J. Quality management in German health care–the EFQM Excellence Model. Int J Health Care Qual Assur Inc Leadersh Health Serv 2000;13:254258.
  • 36
    Burnett D, Blair C, Haeney MR, Jeffcoate SL, Scott KW, Williams DL. Clinical pathology accreditation: standards for the medical laboratory. J Clin Pathol 2002;55:729733.
  • 37
    Klabunde CN, Sancho-Garnier H, Taplin S, Thoresen S, Ohuchi N, Ballard-Barbash R. Quality assurance in follow-up and initial treatment for screening mammography programs in 22 countries. Int J Qual Health Care 2002;14:449461.
  • 38
    Drijkoningen M, Bogers JP, Bourgain C, Cuvelier C, Delvenne P, Gompel C, Saerens L, Thienpont L, Van Damme B, Van Eycken L, Verhest A, Weynand B. Cytopathology in Belgium. Cytopathology 2005;16:100104.
  • 39
    Valkov I, Zlatkov V, Kostova P. Cytopathology in Bulgaria. Cytopathology 2004;15:228232.
  • 40
    Bekova A, Kobilkova J. Cytopathology in the czech republic. Cytopathology 2005;16:147149.
  • 41
    Schenck U, Engelhardt W, Hinrichs F, Jordan B, Müller-Wallraf R, Tenberken K, Witting C. Leitlinie zur Zertifizierung von zytologisch tätigen Assistenten/innen in der Gynäkologischen Zytologie durch die Deutsche Gesellschaft Für Zytologie (DGZ). 1998: